cyan20180331_10k.htm
 

Table of Contents 



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2018

 

Commission File Number 0-14602 

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada

  

91-1206026

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

  

(I. R. S. Employer Identification No.)

  

73-4460 Queen Kaahumanu Highway, Suite 102,
Kailua-Kona, Hawaii

  

96740

(Address of principal executive offices)

  

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (808) 326-1353

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

  

Name of each exchange on which registered:

None

  

NASDAQ Capital Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $0.02 par value
(Title of Class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). ☒  Yes ☐  No

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

Indicated by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). ☐  Yes ☒  No

 

The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on September 30, 2017 was approximately $18,602,266 based on the closing sale price of the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market on that date.

 

Number of shares outstanding of Registrant’s Common Stock at June 15, 2018 was 5,772,032.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, expected to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or prior to July 9, 2018 and to be used in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders expected to be held on August 27, 2018, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K. 

 



 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Item

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

PART I

  

  

  

Discussion of Forward-Looking Statements

1

1.

  

Business

2

1A.

  

Risk Factors

7

2.

  

Properties

15

3.

  

Legal Proceedings

15

  

  

  

 

  

  

PART II

 

5.

  

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

16

7.

  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16

8.

  

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

25

9A

  

Controls and Procedures

47

  

  

  

 

  

  

PART III

 

10.

  

Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant

48

11.

  

Executive Compensation

48

12.

  

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

48

13.

  

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions

48

14.

  

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

48

  

  

  

 

  

  

PART IV

 

15.

  

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules and Exhibits

49

16.

  

Signatures

52

 

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Report and other presentations made by Cyanotech Corporation (“CYAN”) and its subsidiary contain “forward-looking statements,” which include statements that are predictive in nature, depend upon or refer to future events or conditions, and usually include words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plan,” “believes,” “predicts”, “estimates” or similar expressions. In addition, any statement concerning future financial performance, ongoing business strategies or prospects and possible future actions are also forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based upon current expectations and projections about future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and the accuracy of assumptions concerning CYAN and its subsidiary (collectively, the “Company”), the performance of the industry in which CYAN does business, and economic and market factors, among other things. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the Report, presentation or filing in which they are made. Except to the extent required by the Federal Securities Laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Our forward-looking statements in this Report include, but are not limited to:

 

 

Statements relating to our business strategy;

 

Statements relating to our business objectives; and

 

Expectations concerning future operations, profitability, liquidity and financial resources.

 

These forward-looking statements are subject to risk, uncertainties and assumptions about us and our operations that are subject to change based on various important factors, some of which are beyond our control. The following factors, among others, could cause our financial performance to differ significantly from the goals, plans, objectives, intentions and expectations expressed in our forward-looking statements:

 

 

Environmental restrictions, soil and water conditions, levels of sunlight and seasonal weather patterns, particularly heavy rain, wind and other hazards;

 

Consumer perception of our products due to adverse scientific research or findings, publicity regarding nutritional supplements, litigation, regulatory investigations or other events, conditions and circumstances involving the Company which receive national media coverage;

 

Effects of competition, including tactics and locations of competitors and operating and market competition;

 

Demand for our products, the quantities and qualities thereof available for sale and levels of customer satisfaction, including significant unforeseen fluctuations in global demand for products similar to our products;

 

Our dependence on the experience, continuity and competence of our executive officers and other key employees;

 

The added risks associated with or attributed to the current local, national and world economic conditions, including but not limited to, the volatility of crude oil prices, inflation and currency fluctuations;

 

Changes in domestic and/or foreign laws, regulations or standards, affecting nutraceutical products or our methods of operation;

 

Access to available and reasonable financing on a timely basis;

 

The Company’s inability to generate enough revenues to meet its obligations or repay maturing indebtedness;

 

Failure of capital projects to operate as expected or meet expected results;

 

Changes in laws, corporate governance requirements and tax rates, regulations, accounting standards and the application to us or the nutritional products industry of new decisions by courts, regulators or other government authorities;

 

Legal costs associated with any legal proceedings, and the potential direct and indirect cost and other effects on our business or financial condition resulting from any legal proceedings.

 

Risk associated with the geographic concentration of our business;

 

Acts of war, terrorist incidents or natural disasters; and

 

Other risks or uncertainties described elsewhere in this Report and in other periodic reports previously and subsequently filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

  

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1.

Business

 

Unless otherwise indicated, all references in this report to the “Company”, “we”, “us”, “our”, and “Cyanotech” refer to Cyanotech Corporation and its wholly owned subsidiary, Nutrex Hawaii, Inc. (“Nutrex Hawaii” or “Nutrex”), a Hawaii corporation.

 

General

 

We are a world leader in the production of high value natural products derived from microalgae. Incorporated in 1983, we are guided by the principle of providing beneficial, quality microalgal products for health and human nutrition in a sustainable, reliable and environmentally sensitive operation. We are GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) certified by the Natural Products Association™, reinforcing our commitment to quality in our products, quality in our relationships (with our customers, suppliers, employees and the communities we live in), and quality of the environment in which we work. Our products include:

 

 

Hawaiian BioAstin® natural astaxanthin - a powerful dietary antioxidant shown to support and maintain the body’s natural inflammatory response, to enhance skin, and to support eye and joint health. It has expanding applications as a human nutraceutical and functional food ingredient; and

 

 

Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica® - a nutrient-rich dietary supplement used for extra energy, a strengthened immune system, cardiovascular benefits and as a source of antioxidant carotenoids

 

Microalgae are a diverse group of microscopic plants that have a wide range of physiological and biochemical characteristics and contain, among other things, high levels of natural protein, amino acids, vitamins, pigments and enzymes. Microalgae have the following properties that make commercial production attractive: (1) microalgae grow much faster than land grown plants, often up to 100 times faster; (2) microalgae have uniform cell structures with no bark, stems, branches or leaves, permitting easier extraction of products and higher utilization of the microalgae cells; and (3) the cellular uniformity of microalgae makes it practical to control the growing environment in order to optimize a particular cell characteristic. Efficient and effective cultivation of microalgae requires consistent light, warm temperatures, low rainfall and proper chemical balance in a very nutrient-rich environment, free of environmental contaminants and unwanted organisms. This is a challenge that has motivated us to design, develop and implement proprietary production and harvesting technologies, systems and processes in order to commercially produce human nutritional products derived from microalgae.

 

Our production of these products at the 90-acre facility on the Kona Coast of the island of Hawaii provides several benefits. We selected the Keahole Point location in order to take advantage of relatively consistent warm temperatures, sunshine and low levels of rainfall needed for optimal cultivation of microalgae. This location also offers us access to cold deep ocean water, drawn from an offshore depth of 2,000 feet, which we use in our Ocean-Chill Drying system to eliminate the oxidative damage caused by standard drying techniques and as a source of trace nutrients for microalgal cultures. The area is also designated a Biosecure Zone, with tight control of organisms allowed into the area and free of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s). We believe that our technology, systems, processes and favorable growing location generally permit year-round harvest of our microalgal products in a cost-effective manner.

 

Our Business

 

We operate entirely in one operating segment, the cultivation and production of microalgae into high-value, high-quality natural health and nutrition products. We cultivate, on a large-scale basis, two microalgal species from which our two major product lines, natural astaxanthin products and spirulina products, are derived. We record revenue and cost of sales information by product category, but do not record operating expenses by such product category.

  

2

 

The following table sets forth, for the three years ended March 31, 2018, the net sales contributed by each of our product lines (in thousands):

 

   

Net Sales

 
   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 

Natural astaxanthin products:

                       

BioAstin®

  $ 21,650     $ 19,357     $ 19,829  

Spirulina products:

                       

Spirulina Pacifica®

    12,465       12,685       12,011  
                         

Total

  $ 34,115     $ 32,042     $ 31,840  

 

Natural Astaxanthin Products

 

We commenced commercial production of natural astaxanthin in 1997 and in 1999 introduced BioAstin®, our natural astaxanthin product for the human health and nutrition market. BioAstin® represents approximately 63% of our net sales. Astaxanthin’s antioxidant properties are believed to surpass many of the antioxidant properties of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and other carotenoids. Independent scientific studies indicate that in certain models, natural astaxanthin has up to 550 times the antioxidant activity of vitamin E and 10 times the antioxidant activity of beta-carotene. In addition, a growing body of scientific literature suggests that natural astaxanthin has beneficial properties as an anti-inflammatory, with additional benefits for joint, skin and eye health. 

 

BioAstin® is GRAS (generally recognized as safe) as determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Our all natural BioAstin® is cultivated without the use of herbicides or pesticides, and is not genetically modified (non GMO). In fiscal 2012, we applied for a new dietary ingredient (NDI), with the United States Food and Drug Administration, providing for a daily dosage of 12mg of astaxanthin which was reviewed without comment.

 

We produce natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae grown in fresh water supplemented with nutrients. As these algae are extremely susceptible to contamination by unwanted algae, protozoa and amoebae, we developed a proprietary system known as the PhytoDome Closed Culture System or PhytoDome CCS to overcome this problem. Using these large-scale photobioreactors, we have generally been able to grow consistently large volumes of contaminant-free Haematococcus culture, subject to quarterly seasonality.

 

For the final stage of cultivation, the Haematococcus algae is transferred to open ponds where an environmental stress is applied causing the algae to form spores which accumulate high levels of astaxanthin. The astaxanthin crop in each pond is circulated by paddlewheels to keep an even blend of nutrients in suspension and a uniform exposure of the algae to sunlight, which is a major component of cultivation. Once ready for harvest, the media containing these spores is transported through underground pipes to our astaxanthin processing building where the culture media and algal spores are separated. Unlike spirulina, astaxanthin is produced in a batch-mode and each cultivation pond must be completely drained and thoroughly cleaned between cycles.

 

The harvested algal spores are dried to flakes or a fine powder. During processing, the spores are cracked in a proprietary system to assure efficient extraction of astaxanthin. Natural astaxanthin is processed further utilizing a high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process at our facility in Kona. The resulting product is a water insoluble lipid extract used in the production of gelcaps.

   

All natural astaxanthin products undergo a prescribed set of microbiological food product tests to ensure safety and quality. We use third party contract manufacturers for the encapsulation and packaging of gelcaps. All third party contract manufacturers are audit inspected by our Quality Department and are required to comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regulations. These contract manufacturers hold independent third party GMP certifications.

 

BioAstin® is sold primarily as a packaged consumer product through Nutrex Hawaii to natural product distributors, retailers and online channels, or directly to consumers. It is also sold in liquid lipid form as a raw ingredient to dietary supplement manufacturers, health food formulators and cosmetic manufacturers. BioAstin® gelcaps are sold in bulk quantities to international distributors. In 2007, we also introduced a line of BioAstin® based nutritional supplements, MDFormulas. MDFormulas combined the health benefits of BioAstin® with other proven nutrients with benefits for targeted applications such as skin, heart and joint health. In 2012, we began selling our 12 milligram BioAstin® consumer product and in fiscal 2016 we introduced vegetarian formulas of both 4 and 12 milligram consumer products.

 

3

 

BioAstin® competes directly with similar products marketed by other manufacturers including Fuji Chemical of Japan, Algatechnologies of Israel and BGG of China. In the general category of nutritional supplements, BioAstin® and MDFormulas also compete with a variety of vitamins, dietary supplements and other antioxidant products available to consumers. The nutritional products market is highly competitive and includes international, national, regional and local producers and distributors, many of whom have greater resources than we have, and many of whom offer a greater variety of products.

 

The potential benefits of astaxanthin to human health are continuing to emerge. As one of the most potent and bioactive biological antioxidants found in nature, the number of potential roles of natural astaxanthin for human health is growing. Much research has been published in recent years on the beneficial roles of antioxidants in our health, in the aging process and on specific health conditions. The full efficacy of BioAstin® as a human nutraceutical supplement requires further significant clinical study. Independent antioxidant research and prior clinical trials show promising human applications. We hold three United States patents relating to the usage of BioAstin® in the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, the treatment of canker/cold sores and for its use as a topical and oral sunscreen.

 

Spirulina Products

 

We have been producing a strain of spirulina microalgae marketed as Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica® since 1984. Spirulina Pacifica® represents approximately 37% of our net sales. Spirulina Pacifica® provides a plant-based, highly absorbable source of protein, natural beta-carotene, mixed carotenoids, B vitamins, gamma linolenic acid, essential amino acids and other phytonutrients.

 

Spirulina Pacifica® is produced in two forms: powder and tablets. Powder is used as an ingredient in nutritional supplements and health beverages; tablets are consumed as a daily dietary supplement. Both forms are sold as raw material ingredients in bulk quantities, as packaged consumer products under the Nutrex Hawaii label and as private label consumer packaged products.

 

Spirulina Pacifica® is GRAS (generally recognized as safe) for addition to a variety of foods as determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Our all natural Spirulina Pacifica® is cultivated without the use of herbicides or pesticides, is not genetically modified (non GMO) and is certified Kosher by Organized Kashrus Laboratories of Brooklyn, New York and certified Halal by the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America.

 

Our Spirulina Pacifica® is cultivated in a combination of fresh water and a metered amount of nutrient-rich deep ocean water (containing essential trace elements), drawn from a depth of 2,000 feet below sea level. This water mixture is supplemented with other major required nutrients. We recycle fresh water in our spirulina production process where possible and continue to explore further recycling opportunities.

  

The spirulina crop in each pond is circulated by paddlewheels to keep an even blend of nutrients in suspension and a uniform exposure of the algae to sunlight, which is a major component of cultivation. Our ponds are engineered to maintain the right media depth for sunlight to permeate each crop completely, facilitating rapid growth. The design of our cultivation ponds promotes efficient growing conditions, allowing the Spirulina Pacifica® algae to reproduce rapidly. Each pond can be harvested, on average, in six days.

 

 Once ready for harvest, a majority of the spirulina algae are pumped from a pond to our processing building where the crop is separated from the culture media. The culture remaining in the ponds serves as an inoculum for the next growth cycle. Harvested spirulina is washed with fresh water and filtered before moving to the drying stage. Culture media separated from spirulina algae during processing are conserved and recycled. Our Integrated Culture Biology Management (“ICBM”) technology for microalgae cultivation has proven to be a reliable and stable operating environment, allowing us to grow and harvest spirulina without significant contamination by unwanted microorganisms and without associated loss of productivity.

 

Spirulina Pacifica® powder is dried via our low-oxygen Ocean-Chill Drying process, thereby preserving high levels of antioxidant carotenoids and other nutrients sensitive to heat and oxygen. The rapid drying process results in a dark green powder. Spirulina powder is generally difficult to form into tablets, and most tablet manufacturers either add high amounts (from 10% to 30%) of inert substances to “glue” the tablet together or use a heat granulation process that destroys nutrients. In contrast, our Spirulina Pacifica® tablets contain a maximum of 2% of such substances and are produced in cold press compression tablet-making machines.

 

4

 

 Each production lot of Spirulina Pacifica® is sampled and subjected to thorough quality control analyses including testing for moisture, carotenoids, minerals, color and taste, among others. Further, each lot of our Spirulina Pacifica® undergoes a prescribed set of microbiological food product tests, including total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria and E. coli. The Spirulina Pacifica® powder and tablets are packaged to extend shelf life and ensure product freshness. Our packaged consumer products are bottled and labeled by third party contractors in California. These contractors are subject to regular government inspections and hold Drug Manufacturing Licenses & Processed Food Registrations with the State of California Department of Health. These contract manufacturers hold independent third party GMP certifications.

 

The majority of our bulk spirulina is sold to international health food manufacturers and formulators, many of whom identify and promote our Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica® in their products. Such customers purchase bulk powder or bulk tablets and package these products under their brand label for sale to the health and natural food markets in their countries. Some of the brands produced by these customers are marketed and sold in direct competition with the packaged consumer products sold through our Nutrex Hawaii subsidiary in international channels. In the domestic market, Nutrex Hawaii packaged consumer products are sold through natural product distributors, retailers and online channels, or directly to consumers. In selected international markets, we have exclusive sales distributors for both our bulk and packaged consumer products.

  

Our Spirulina Pacifica® products compete with a variety of vitamins, dietary supplements, other algal products and similar nutritional products available to consumers. The nutritional products category is highly competitive and includes international, national, regional and local producers and distributors, many of whom have greater resources than Cyanotech and many of whom offer a greater variety of products. Our direct competition in the spirulina market is currently from Dainippon Ink and Chemical Company’s Earthrise facility in California, Parry Nutraceuticals, a division of Murugappa Group of India and several farms in China. In addition, there are numerous other smaller farms throughout the world. As one of the largest producers of spirulina, and the only producer of Hawaiian spirulina, our challenge is to increase our market share among customers who seek the high-quality products we produce while concurrently adjusting our product mix to meet our revenue and profitability targets.

  

Major Customers

 

Two customers accounted for 32% and 16%, respectively, of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. One customer accounted for 24% of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Two customers accounted for 19% and 11%, respectively, of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016.

 

Research and Development

 

Our expertise for many years has been in the development of efficient, stable and cost-effective production systems for microalgal products. We have learned production levels from our systems may not be sustainable across periods of days, weeks, or even months. Accordingly, we typically investigate each specific microalgae identified in the scientific literature for potentially marketable products and for solutions to production stability and efficiency challenges, and then strive to develop the technology to grow such microalgae on a commercial scale or to incorporate procedures or technology to improve production stability and efficiency. Successful microalgal product developments and technical solutions are highly uncertain and dependent on numerous factors, many beyond our control. Products and solutions or improvements that appear promising in early phases of development may be found to be ineffective, may be uneconomical because of manufacturing costs or other factors, may be precluded from commercialization due to the proprietary rights of other companies, or may fail to receive necessary regulatory approvals. During fiscal years 2016 through 2018, our research and development expenses were $0.6 million annually.

 

Patents, Trademarks and Licenses

 

We have been granted four United States patents: one on aspects of our production methods and three relating to usage of our BioAstin® products.

 

Our production method patent is directed to microalgae production technology, and expired in April 2016. Our patents relating to usage of our BioAstin® products are three utility patents on the use of astaxanthin, which will expire in December 2019, February 2020 and April 2020.

 

5

 

Although we view our proprietary rights as important, we currently believe that a loss of patent rights is not likely to have a material adverse effect on our present business as a whole. Instead, our commercial results mainly depend upon our trade secrets, know-how, other non-patent proprietary rights, customer relationships, our climate and our location. As a result, we feel that our competitors in the U.S. would not be able to implement competing technology covered by our patents now, after their expirations or otherwise, without our same combination of non-patented attributes.

 

We have registered trademarks in the U.S. and in some foreign markets, such as the European Union. Our operations are not dependent upon any single trademark, although some trademarks are identified with a number of our products and are important in the sale and marketing of such products.

 

Regulations

 

Several governmental agencies regulate various aspects of our business and our products in the United States, including the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the State of Hawaii Department of Health, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Postal Service, state attorney general offices and various agencies of the states and localities in which our products are sold. We believe we are in compliance with all material government regulations which apply to our products and operations. However, we are not able to predict the nature of any future laws, regulations, interpretations or applications, nor can we predict what effect future changes would have on our business.

 

Our international customers are subject to similar governmental agency regulations in their various geographic regions. Compliance by our customers with such local regulations is beyond our control and we cannot predict their ability to maintain such compliance. However, we strive to assist our customers in meeting local regulations pertaining to the use and sale of our products whenever possible.

 

Environmental Matters

 

In 2002, we were issued under the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) an Incidental Take Permit (“ITP”) by the United States Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service (“FWS”). The ESA defines “incidental take” as “incidental to, and not for the purpose of, the carrying out of an otherwise lawful activity.” This permit authorizes incidental take of the endangered Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni) that is anticipated to occur as a result of ongoing operations and maintenance at our Kona facility. As a mandatory component for the issuance of such permit, we submitted and maintain a Habitat Conservation Plan (“HCP”) to ensure that the effects of the permitted action on listed species are adequately minimized and mitigated.

 

The HCP called for the creation of a nesting and breeding ground for the Hawaiian stilt to offset any take activity. We have complied with these requirements since 2002. The breeding program was so successful that the increase in the Hawaiian stilt population in the area became a potential hazard for the adjacent State airport facility. We disassembled the stilt habitat and are mitigating “take” by using standard non-lethal hazing devices to discourage nesting and breeding.

 

A requirement of the ITP is to provide insurance coverage for funding the project for the term of the ITP. Our insurance broker was unable to locate an underwriter who would provide such a bond. As permitted by law, the FWS waived this requirement recognizing that this HCP did not involve a significant capital expenditure. However, under Hawaii state law, no waiver provision is available. A new ITP was issued by the FWS on September 29, 2006 and by the State of Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) on October 13, 2006, both of which expired on March 17, 2016.

  

On March 14, 2016 the Company submitted an application for “Amendment and Extension to Cyanotech Corporation’s Habitat Conservation Plan and Incidental Take Permit” to FWS and DOFAW. The term of the requested extension is 19 years ending in 2035. The application was reviewed by the Federal and State Agencies and was conditionally granted at a meeting of the State of Hawaii Endangered Species Recovery Committee (ESRC) on June 13, 2016. The condition was that the Company reach an agreement with a specified property owner for offsite predator mitigation by June 2017. The Company was unable to reach an agreement with the specified property owner. At its June 13, 2017 meeting the ESRC asked that detailed options for offsite mitigation be presented to them within six months. We are continuing to work with FWS and DOFAW to develop details of offsite predator mitigation to comply with ESRC requests, and are considered to be in compliance as the negotiations proceed. While we do not anticipate any significant problems because we have satisfied all conditions of past HCP’s/ITP’s and our operation is considered by the State of Hawaii as “low effect”, there can be no guarantees that FWS and/or DOFAW will not impose additional requirements on us in connection with offsite predator mitigation which may impose additional costs on us.

 

6

 

Employees

 

As of March 31, 2018, we employed 118 people on a full-time basis. Of the total, 57 are involved in harvesting, production and quality, with the remainder in maintenance, shipping, sales, administration and support. None of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements. Management believes that its relations with employees are good.

 

Company Website and SEC Filings

 

Our corporate website is www.cyanotech.com. There we make available copies of Cyanotech documents, news releases and our filings with the Securities Exchange Commission, or the “SEC”, including financial statements. Also included are copies of the Board of Directors Code of Conduct, the Company’s Code of Conduct and Ethics, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, the Compensation Committee Charter and the Charter and Powers of the Audit Committee. We also maintain the website www.nutrex-hawaii.com dedicated to our wholly owned subsidiary, Nutrex Hawaii, Inc. On that website, Spirulina Pacifica® and BioAstin® are sold directly online. The information found on our websites, unless otherwise indicated, is not part of this or any other report we file or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the risks described below which we believe are significant but not the only ones we face. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. You should also refer to the other information contained in this report, including our financial statements and the related notes.

  

Our production of algae involves an agricultural process, subject to such risks as weather, disease, contamination and water availability.

 

The production of our algae products involves complex agricultural systems with inherent risks including weather, disease, and contamination. These risks are unpredictable and also include such elements as the control and balance of necessary nutrients and other factors. The efficient and effective cultivation of microalgae requires consistent light, warm temperatures, low rainfall and proper chemical balance in a very nutrient-rich environment. If the chemical composition of a pond changes from its required balance, unusually high levels of contamination due to the growth of unwanted organisms or other biological problems may occur and would result in a loss of harvestable output. These often arise without warning and sometimes there are few or no clear indicators as to appropriate remediation or corrective measures. We believe that our technology, systems, processes and favorable growing location generally permit year-round harvest of our microalgal products in a cost-effective manner. However, environmental factors cannot be controlled in an open air environment, therefore, we cannot, and do not attempt to, provide any form of assurance with regard to our systems, processes, location, or cost-effectiveness. In the event that we need to take steps to correct any chemical imbalance or contamination of our ponds, including by re-inoculating the ponds, such measures may not be effective and could interrupt production. To the extent that our production is negatively impacted by environmental factors, we may be unable to fill large orders for one or more months until such time that production improves. The efficient and effective cultivation and processing of microalgae requires a consistent supply of fresh water and cold ocean water. If the availability and or quality composition of water changes from its required levels, problems may occur that could result in a loss of harvestable output.

 

Hawaii from time to time has experienced shortages of water, electric power and fuels. Future shortages could disrupt our operations and could result in additional expense. Our Spirulina Pacifica® is cultivated in a combination of fresh water and deep ocean water. In the case of deep ocean water, although abundantly available at this location, the facility to pump and deliver the water to our location is owned by the State of Hawaii. The State of Hawaii sets the price for deep ocean water annually based on its cost to deliver the water. Any significant increase in the price could adversely affect our business. The availability and price of water could also be impacted by a significant population growth in the region as well as throughput constraints on the water delivery infrastructure. In June 2017, several fresh water pumps owned by the County of Hawaii were disabled, and the county instituted restrictions on fresh water supply. We have adopted several water savings strategies to mitigate this challenge, but there is no guarantee that they will be effective or that they will not have unforeseen negative effects on the growth of Spirulina. If we are unable to obtain enough fresh water at reasonable prices to cultivate our products, our business could be negatively impacted.

 

7

 

There is risk in operating entirely in one business segment such as the cultivation and production of microalgae at a single production facility.

 

Single location agricultural and production facilities do not provide the protections and assurances afforded by operations in two or more widely separated locations. Our single location in Hawaii is susceptible to catastrophic natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. In the event of a natural disaster or localized extended outages of critical utilities or transportation systems, we could experience a significant business interruption. Also, a single agricultural facility provides limited biologic diversity protection against invasive, mutant, or harmful organisms.

  

Our facilities in Hawaii are located adjacent to a major airport, and an aircraft disaster could disrupt our operations.

 

Our production facility and corporate headquarters in Hawaii are located adjacent to the Keahole International Airport. In the event of an aircraft disaster, we could experience a significant business interruption, including loss of water, electrical and communication services as well as inability to access our facilities.

 

Unfavorable publicity or consumer perception of our products and any similar products distributed by other companies could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

The nutritional supplements market is highly dependent upon consumer perception regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of nutritional supplements. Consumer perception of our products can be significantly influenced by scientific research and findings, as well as by national media attention and other publicity regarding the consumption of nutritional supplements. There can be no assurance that future research or publicity will be favorable to the nutritional supplements market or any product in particular, or consistent with earlier publicity. Our dependence on consumer perception means that any adverse reports, findings or publicity, whether or not accurate or with merit, could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products and on our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.

 

We may become subject to legal proceedings.

 

We may become subject to claims and legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. The costs of such proceedings could vary from quarter to quarter based on the status of the proceedings and could have a material impact on our results in any given quarter.

 

The nutritional products industry is extremely competitive. Many of our significant competitors have greater financial and other resources than we do, and one or more of these competitors could use their greater resources to gain market share at our expense.

 

The nutritional products market includes international, national, regional and local producers and distributors, many of whom have substantially greater production, financial, research and development, personnel and marketing resources than we do, and many of whom offer a greater variety of products. As a result, each of these companies could compete more aggressively and sustain that competition over a longer period of time than we could. Our lack of resources relative to our significant competitors may cause us to fail to anticipate or respond adequately to development of new products and changing consumer demands and preferences, or may cause us to experience significant delays in obtaining or introducing new or enhanced products. These failures or delays could reduce our competitiveness and cause a decline in our market share and sales. Increased competition in our industry could result in price reductions, reduced gross profit margin or loss of market share, any of which could have a material effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

   

8

 

We depend heavily on the unique abilities and knowledge of our officers and key personnel. If we are unable to recruit and retain key personnel, we may be unable to achieve our goals.

 

Our success depends, to a significant extent, upon the services of key personnel. For example, our Chief Executive Officer has valuable contacts and leadership qualities that would be difficult to replace. Our Chief Scientific Officer (who is also our founder and former CEO) is our primary scientific resource, continuing to improve production and cultivation technology and to investigate new microalgal products. Our Chief Financial Officer has a unique understanding of our financial systems and needs. Our Vice President of Manufacturing and Infrastructure has years of experience with the mechanical operation of the production facility and continues to improve our production process. Our Vice President of Quality and Regulatory Affairs has experience and knowledge of federal and state regulations governing our production processes and product representation essential to continuing compliance. The loss of any such personnel or the delay in the replacement of such personnel could significantly delay the achievement of our business objectives and could adversely affect our ability to do business or provide needed management. Attracting permanent skilled executives in Hawaii can be difficult due to limited local qualified applicants. If we are unable to attract qualified candidates, or if the search process takes longer than expected, it could adversely impact our business.

 

Our operations are vulnerable because we have limited personnel and redundancy and backup systems in our data management function.

 

Our internal order, inventory and product data management system is an electronic system through which orders are placed for our products and through which we manage product pricing, shipment, returns and other matters. This system’s continued and uninterrupted performance is critical to our day-to-day business operations. Despite our precautions, unanticipated interruptions in our computer and telecommunications systems have, in the past, caused problems or stoppages in this electronic system. These interruptions, and resulting problems, could occur again in the future. We also have limited personnel available to process purchase orders and to manage product pricing and other matters in any manner other than through this electronic system. Any significant interruption or delay in the operation of this electronic management system could cause a decline in our sales and profitability.

  

The loss of a major customer could result in a material reduction in our revenues and profitability.

 

Our top ten customers generated 70% and 60% of our net sales during fiscal 2018 and fiscal 2017, respectively. Two customers accounted for 32% and 16%, respectively, of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Accordingly, the loss of one or more of those customers or a substantial decrease in such customers' purchases from us could result in a material reduction in our revenues and profitability.

 

We could be subject to breaches of our information technology systems, which could damage our reputation and customer relationships. Such breaches could subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal, and operational consequences.

 

   Our business relies on information systems to obtain, rapidly process, analyze and manage data to, among other things, facilitate the purchase and distribution of inventory items through numerous distributors; receive, process and ship orders on a timely basis; accurately bill and collect from customers; process payments to suppliers; and provide technical support to our customers.

  

A cyberattack that bypasses our security, or employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions that cause a security breach could lead to a material disruption of our information systems and/or the loss of business information. Such an attack could result in, among other things, the theft, destruction, loss, misappropriation or release of confidential data and intellectual property; operational or business delays; liability for a breach of personal information belonging to our customers or our employees; and damage to our reputation any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In the event of an attack, we would be exposed to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability, including under laws that protect the privacy of personal information.

 

Compliance with new and existing governmental regulations could increase our costs significantly and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

The processing, formulation, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, advertising and distribution of our products are subject to federal laws and regulation by one or more federal agencies, including the FDA, the FTC, the USDA and the EPA. These activities are also regulated by various state, local and international laws and agencies of the states and localities in which our products are sold. Regulations may prevent or delay the introduction, or require the reformulation, of our products, which could result in lost sales and increased costs to us. A regulatory agency may not accept the evidence of safety for any new ingredients that we may want to market, may determine that a particular product or product ingredient presents an unacceptable health risk, may determine that a particular statement of nutritional support on our products or that parties use on the products we manufacture for them, or that we want to use on our products or that third parties want to use on the products we manufacture for them, is an unacceptable drug claim or an unauthorized version of a food “health claim”. A regulatory agency may determine that particular claims are not adequately supported by available scientific evidence. Any such regulatory determination would prevent us from marketing particular products or using certain statements on those products, which could adversely affect our sales of those products.

 

9

 

Additional or more stringent laws and regulations of dietary supplements and other products have been considered from time to time. These developments could require reformulation of some products to meet new standards, recalls or discontinuance of some products not able to be reformulated, additional record-keeping requirements, increased documentation of the properties of some products, additional or different labeling, additional scientific substantiation, or other new requirements. Any of these developments could increase our costs significantly. In addition, regulators' evolving interpretation of existing laws could have similar effects.

 

If we fail to comply with the reporting obligations of the Exchange Act and Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act or fail to maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting, our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and investors’ confidence in us, could be materially and adversely affected.

 

As a public company, we are required to comply with the periodic reporting obligations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), including preparing annual reports, quarterly reports, and current reports. Our failure to prepare and disclose this information in a timely manner and meet our reporting obligations in their entirety could subject us to penalties under federal securities laws and regulations of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“NASDAQ”), expose us to lawsuits, and restrict our ability to access financing on favorable terms, or at all.

 

In addition, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, we are required to evaluate and provide a management report of our systems of internal control over financial reporting. During the course of the evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, we could identify areas requiring improvement and could be required to design enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. This could result in significant delays and costs to us and require us to divert substantial resources, including management time, from other activities. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the Sarbanes Oxley Act. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. Any failure to maintain compliance with the requirements of Section 404 on a timely basis could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could, negatively impact the trading price of our stock, and adversely affect investors’ confidence in the Company and our ability to access capital markets for financing.

 

Our three largest shareholders own a substantial portion of our common stock and could exert substantial influence over our business, particularly if any of them choose to work together.

 

Our three largest shareholders collectively own approximately 45.5% of our common stock. According to publicly filed beneficial ownership reports, Michael Davis, chairman of our board of directors, beneficially held 960,261 of shares representing a 16.9% beneficial ownership, the Rudolf Steiner Foundation, or RSF, beneficially owned 917,133 shares representing a 15.8% beneficial ownership, and Meridian OHC Partners held 749,610 shares representing a 12.9% beneficial ownership. The shares held by RSF were originally donated by a foundation affiliated with Mr. Davis or acquired from the proceeds of donations made by that foundation. In addition, Mr. Davis and RSF filed a Schedule 13D with the SEC on March 17, 2017 announcing the formation of a “group” among the two of them and certain of Mr. Davis’ affiliates under Section 13 of the Exchange Act. As part of the agreement between Mr. Davis and RSF, RSF has agreed not to sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any of its shares in the Company unless RSF provides concurrent written notice to an affiliate of Mr. Davis and the Company at least three days prior to the consummation of any such sale, transfer or other disposition.

 

Our significant stockholders, particularly if they choose to work together, may have the ability to exert significant influence over our business policies and affairs on matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, such as the election or removal of directors, amendments to our certificate of incorporation, the approval of a business combination or certain corporate financing activities. The interests of our significant stockholders could differ from those of other stockholders in ways that could be adverse to the interests of other shareholders. For example, this concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of our company even if such a transaction is at a premium to the prevailing market price of our common stock and is supported by other shareholders. Concentration of ownership could also harm the market price of our common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning stock in a company that a substantial portion of common stock is controlled by a small number of stockholders.

 

10

 

Some provisions of our charter documents and Nevada law may discourage an acquisition of us by others, even if the acquisition may be in the best interest of our stockholders.

 

Provisions in our Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, as well as certain provisions of Nevada law, could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if doing so may benefit our stockholders. These provisions include the authorization of “blank check” preferred stock, the rights, preferences and privileges of which may be established and shares of which may be issued by our board of directors at its discretion from time to time and without stockholder approval.

 

Because we are incorporated in Nevada, we may be governed by Nevada’s statutes governing combinations with interested stockholders and control share acquisitions, which may discourage, delay or prevent someone from acquiring us or merging with us, whether or not it is desired by or beneficial to our stockholders. We have not opted out of the application of these laws but may elect to opt out in the future. Under Nevada’s laws governing combinations with interested stockholders, a Nevada corporation may not, in general, engage in certain types of business combinations with any beneficial owner of 10% or more of the corporation’s voting shares or an affiliate of the corporation who at any time within two years immediately prior to the date in question was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the corporation’s voting shares, unless the holder has held the stock for two years or the board of directors approved the beneficial owner’s acquisition of its shares, the board of directors approved the transaction before the beneficial owner acquired its shares, or holders of at least a majority of the outstanding voting power approve the transaction after the beneficial owner acquired its shares. In addition, Nevada’s control share acquisition laws prohibit a purchaser of the shares of an issuing corporation from voting those shares, under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations, after crossing specified threshold ownership percentages, unless the purchaser obtains the approval of the issuing corporation’s disinterested stockholders.

 

Any provision of our Restated Articles of Incorporation or Amended and Restated Bylaws or of Nevada law that is applicable to us that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock in the event that a potentially beneficial acquisition is discouraged, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

 

A significant or prolonged economic downturn could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

Our results of operations are affected by the business activity of our customers who in turn are affected by the level of economic activity in the industries and markets that they serve. A decline in the level of business activity of our clients or the economy as a whole could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and profit margin.

 

The global cost of oil derived energy impacts us in several ways, and it may hinder our efforts to achieve profitability. Oil prices primarily impact us through the costs of electricity, transportation, materials and supplies which are tied to the cost of oil either directly or indirectly. The return of a high cost of oil on a global basis may signal a prolonged economic downturn resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Our quarterly operating results may vary from quarter to quarter, which may result in increased volatility of our share price.

 

We have experienced, and may in the future continue to experience, fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. These fluctuations could reduce the market price of our common stock. Factors that may cause our quarterly operating results to vary include, but are not limited to:

 

 

weather-related cultivation difficulties;

 

 

availability and cost of fresh water and ocean water;

 

 

any non-routine legal fees;

 

 

fluctuations in customer demand;

 

11

 

 

business decisions of our customers regarding orders for our products;

 

 

changes in energy costs;

 

 

changes in raw material costs;

 

 

production problems which we cannot solve technically or economically;

 

 

contamination of our cultivation and production facilities;

 

 

effects of weather on our ability to meet customer demand;

 

 

timing of promotional activities;

 

 

the introduction of new products by us or our competitors;

 

 

changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;

 

 

changes in seasonal and other trends in our customers’ buying patterns;

 

 

changes in government regulation, both domestic and foreign;

 

 

fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

 

global economic and political conditions and related risks, including acts of terrorism; and

 

 

other factors beyond our control.

 

A significant portion of our expense levels are relatively fixed. If net sales are below expectations in any given period, the adverse impact on results of operations may be magnified by our inability to reduce expenses quickly enough to compensate for the sales shortfall.

 

Our global operations expose us to complex management, foreign currency, legal, tax and economic risks, which we may not be able to address quickly and adequately.

 

Our products are marketed in a number of countries around the world. For the year ended March 31, 2018, approximately 23% of our net sales were from sales to foreign customers. As a result, we are subject to a number of risks which include, but are not limited to:

 

 

the burden of complying with a wide variety of national and local laws;

 

 

potentially longer payment cycles for foreign sales;

 

 

restrictions (government and otherwise) on the movement of cash;

 

 

the absence in some jurisdictions of effective laws protecting our intellectual and proprietary property rights, or of enforcement of such laws where they do exist;

 

 

changes in government regulations, both domestic and foreign, including changes in trade tariffs;

 

 

global economic and political conditions and related risks, including acts of terrorism; and

 

 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.

 

Climate change initiatives could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

Our manufacturing processes require that we purchase significant quantities of energy from third parties, which results in the generation of greenhouse gases, either directly onsite or indirectly at electric utilities. Both domestic and international legislation to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and establishing a price on carbon could create increases in energy costs and price volatility. Considerable international attention is now focused on development of an international policy framework to address climate change. Proposed and existing legislative efforts to control or limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect our energy source and supply choices as well as increase the cost of energy and raw materials derived from sources that generate greenhouse gas emissions. If our suppliers are unable to obtain energy at a reasonable cost in the future, the cost of our raw materials could be negatively impacted which could result in increased manufacturing costs.

 

12

 

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights or if we infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others our business may be harmed.

 

We currently have three United States patents in force for use of our BioAstin® products. We regard our proprietary technology, trade secrets, trademarks and similar intellectual property as important and we rely on a combination of trade secret, contract, patent, copyright and trademark law to establish and protect our rights in our products and technology. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to protect our technology adequately or that competitors will not be able to develop similar technology independently. In addition, the laws of certain foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Litigation in the United States or abroad may be necessary to enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement. Such litigation, even if successful, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, if any such claims are asserted against us, we may seek to obtain a license under the third party’s intellectual property rights. There can be no assurance, however, that a license would be available on terms acceptable or favorable to us, if at all.

 

Our insurance liability coverage is limited and may not be adequate to cover potential losses.

 

In the ordinary course of business, we purchase insurance coverage (e.g., property and liability coverage) to protect us against loss of or damage to our properties and claims made by third parties and employees for property damage or personal injuries. However, the protection provided by such insurance is limited in significant respects and, in some instances, we have no coverage and certain of our insurance policies have substantial “deductibles” or limits on the maximum amounts that may be recovered. For example, if a volcanic eruption, tsunami, earthquake or other catastrophic natural disaster should occur, we may not be able to recover all facility restoration costs and revenues lost from business interruption. In addition, we maintain product liability insurance in limited amounts for all of our products involving human consumption; however, broader product liability coverage is prohibitively expensive. Insurers have also introduced new exclusions or limitations of coverage for claims related to certain perils including, but not limited to, mold and terrorism. If a series of losses occurred, such as from a series of lawsuits in the ordinary course of business each of which were subject to the deductible amount, or if the maximum limit of the available insurance were substantially exceeded, we could incur losses in amounts that would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our ability to develop and market new products or modify existing products and production methods may be adversely affected if we lose the services of or cannot replace certain employees knowledgeable in advanced scientific and other fields.

 

Our products are derived from and depend on proprietary and non-proprietary processes and methods founded on advanced scientific knowledge, skills, and expertise. If the services of employees knowledgeable in these fields are lost and cannot be replaced in a reasonable time frame at reasonable costs, our ability to develop and market new products or modify existing products and production methods would be adversely impacted. At the same time, regulatory compliance surrounding our products and financial matters generally requires a basic knowledge and level of expertise related to production, quality assurance, and financial control. If we lose the services or cannot reasonably replace employees who have the necessary knowledge and expertise our ability to remain in regulatory compliance could be adversely affected.

 

We may need to raise additional capital in the future which may not be available.

 

We believe our cash to be provided from operations will be sufficient to meet our working capital and operating requirements for at least the next 12 months, but we may need to raise additional funds and we may not be able to secure such funding on acceptable terms, if at all. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our then current stockholders may be reduced. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of convertible debt securities, or through additional debt or similar instruments, such securities, debt, or similar instruments could have rights senior to those of our common stockholders and such instruments could contain provisions restricting our operations. If adequate funds are not available to satisfy either short-term or long-term capital requirements, we may be required to limit operations with adverse results.

 

13

 

We have incurred significant losses in the past. If we incur significant losses in the future, we will experience negative cash flow which may hamper current operations and prevent us from sustaining or expanding our business.

 

As of March 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $14.1 million, primarily as a result of significant losses incurred during fiscal years ended March 31, 2017, 2016, 2008 and 2007 of $1.2 million, $4.4 million, $1.1 million and $7.4 million, respectively. The 2016 loss included a non-cash provision of $3.6 million to record a valuation allowance against the deferred tax assets, and the 2007 loss included a non-cash impairment loss on equipment and leasehold improvements of $4.5 million. These losses account for approximately 100% of our accumulated deficit since our inception. Historically, we have relied upon cash from operations and financing activities to fund all of the cash requirements of our business. However, no assurance can be provided that we will return to profitability and extended periods of profitability and net income do not assure positive cash flows. Future periods of net losses from operations could result in negative cash flow, and may hamper ongoing operations and prevent us from sustaining or expanding our business. We cannot assure you that we will achieve, sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis in the future. If we do not achieve, sustain or increase profitability, our business will be adversely affected and our stock price may decline.

 

Our stock price is volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares of our common stock.

 

Stock markets have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. In addition, the average daily trading volume of the securities of small companies can be very low. Limited trading volume of our stock may contribute to its future volatility. Price declines in our common stock could result from general market and economic conditions and a variety of other factors, including any of the following:

 

 

volatility resulting from minimal trading activity;

 

 

changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

 

stock market price and volume fluctuations generally;

 

 

economic conditions specific to the nutritional products industry;

 

 

economic conditions tied to global resource markets, such as fuel costs;

 

 

announcements by us or our competitors of new or enhanced products or of significant contracts, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

 

fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

 

changes in our pricing policies or the pricing policies of our competitors;

 

 

changes in foreign currency exchange rates affecting our product costs, pricing or our customers markets;

 

 

regulatory developments effecting our specific products or industry; and

 

 

additions or departures of key personnel.

 

The price at which you purchase shares of our common stock may not be indicative of the price that will prevail later in the trading market. You may be unable to sell your shares of common stock at or above your purchase price, which may result in substantial losses to you. As of March 31, 2018, there were approximately 5.8 million shares of our common stock outstanding and stockholders holding at least 5% of our stock, individually or with affiliated persons or entities, collectively beneficially owned or controlled approximately 46% of such shares. Sales of large numbers of shares by any of our large stockholders could adversely affect our trading price, particularly given our relatively small historic trading volumes. If stockholders holding shares of our common stock sell, indicate an intention to sell, or if it is perceived that they will sell, substantial amounts of their common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Moreover, if there is no active trading market or if the volume of trading is limited, holders of our common stock may have difficulty selling their shares.

 

14

 

Recent European Union regulations include stringent requirements for health claims on food and supplement labels.

 

The European Union has harmonized standards among Member States for health claims on food and supplement labels. The scientific assessment of health claims is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an advisory panel to the European Commission. The European Commission will consider the opinions of EFSA in determining whether to include a health claim on a Positive List of permissible claims. Once the list is published, only health claims for ingredients and products included on the list may be used in promotional materials for products marketed and sold in the European Union. This could severely decrease or limit the marketability for our products in this market area. We have implemented strategies that we believe will allow for continued and increasing sales of our products in the European Union. However there can be no guarantee that such strategies will be successful.

 

Item 2.

Properties

 

Our principal facility and corporate headquarters is located at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (“NELHA”) at Keahole Point in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. It encompasses approximately 90 fully developed acres containing microalgal cultivation ponds, processing facilities, research and quality control laboratories, and sales and administrative offices. The property is leased from the State of Hawaii under a 40-year commercial lease expiring in 2035. Our lessee interest in the NELHA lease is encumbered by a mortgage securing approximately $7.5 million of debt (see footnote 4 and 6 of the financial statements). If we were to require additional land for expansion, we believe that there is sufficient available land at NELHA, provided a revised NELHA lease can be negotiated with acceptable terms. Under the terms of the existing NELHA lease, we could be required to remove improvements at the end of the lease term. Based upon our analysis, we do not believe the projected cost for such removal to be reasonably estimable, and we also believe we are unlikely to incur such costs, given historical practices. However, conditions could change in the future and it is not possible to predict such changes or estimate any impact thereof. We also rent warehouse space in Rancho Cucamonga, California, and office space in Los Angeles, California. 

  

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

From time to time, we may become party to lawsuits and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business relating to employment, intellectual property, and other matters. There were no significant legal matters outstanding at March 31, 2018.

 

15

 

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Our common stock is listed and traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “CYAN”. The closing price of our common stock was $4.20 as of June 13, 2018. The approximate number of holders of record of our common stock was 400 as of June 15, 2018. The high and low selling prices as reported by NASDAQ were as follows:

 

Quarter Ended:

 

June 30

   

September 30

   

December 31

   

March 31

 

Fiscal 2018

                               

Common stock price per share:

                               

High

  $ 4.00     $ 5.35     $ 5.35     $ 5.78  

Low

  $ 3.25     $ 3.25     $ 3.82     $ 3.45  
                                 

Fiscal 2017

                               

Common stock price per share:

                               

High

  $ 5.65     $ 5.36     $ 4.30     $ 4.70  

Low

  $ 4.76     $ 3.43     $ 3.60     $ 3.70  

 

We are prohibited from declaring any common stock dividends without the prior written consent of a lender per the conditions of an existing term loan agreement with such lender. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on common stock.

  

The following table sets forth the Company’s common shares authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans as of March 31, 2018:

 

   

Common

shares

to be issued
upon exercise

of options and

restricted

stock units
outstanding

(in shares)

   

Weighted-

average
exercise price

of outstanding

options and

restricted

stock units

   

Common

shares

available for
future grant

under equity
compensation

plans

(in shares)

 

Equity compensation, plans approved by security holders

    629,075     $ 3.80       1,363,615  

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to provide a reader of our financial statements with a narrative of our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and certain other factors that may affect our future results from the perspective of management.

 

Our MD&A should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. A more comprehensive description of our products and markets for such products is provided in Part I. Item 1. Business.

 

Overview

 

We are an agricultural company and a world leader in the production of natural products derived from microalgae grown in complex and intricate agricultural systems on the Kona coast of Hawaii. We have a core competency in cultivating and processing microalgae into high-value, high-quality natural products for the human nutrition market. We are unique in that our microalgae are grown year-round in open ponds which, similar to natural land and plant based horticulture, require favorable weather conditions.  In our case these conditions include consistent light, warm temperatures and low rainfall to achieve optimum production.  Equally important is a nutrient-rich environment, which requires the proper control and balance of necessary nutrients to support growth and yields.  Greater variability in these environmental factors more commonly occur in our winter growing season.

 

16

 

Our products are sold as consumer packaged goods through natural products distributors, retailers and online channels, and direct to consumers, primarily in the U.S., as well as in bulk form to manufacturers, formulators and distributors worldwide in the health foods and nutritional supplements markets. We will continue to focus on growing the market for our high quality, higher margin consumer products by emphasizing the higher nutritional content of our Hawaiian spirulina and the benefits of our natural astaxanthin. We generated 23%, 28% and 29% of our revenues outside of the United States during the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Competing in a global marketplace, we are influenced by the general economic conditions of the countries in which our customers operate, including adherence to our customers’ local governmental regulations and requirements. Since all sales are made in U.S. currency, we have no material foreign exchange exposure.

   

Our production levels have a significant impact on our gross profit margin, as well as our ability to meet customer demand. Because our processes are agricultural and a large percentage of our production costs are fixed, it is important to maintain production volumes to support the minimal resource levels required to sustain a large-scale open culture agricultural facility. Our production costs include customary variables such as availability and costs of personnel, raw materials, energy, water and freight. These variables fluctuate based on changes in the local, national and world economies. More complex variables include cultivation methods, feeding formulations and harvesting processes, all of which include efforts to anticipate the extent of weather and environmental events and make timely and sufficient adjustments. Although the variability of such costs cannot be fully anticipated, we have focused increased effort in this area in order to produce both spirulina and astaxanthin at levels sufficient to fully absorb production costs into inventory.

 

Fresh water is critical for our natural astaxanthin and spirulina production, and while we have not experienced any long-term constraint on fresh water availability, future availability could be negatively impacted by significant growth in the local population as well as by throughput constraints on the water delivery infrastructure owned by the County of Hawaii. Given the criticality of fresh water to our operations and the community, we recycle fresh water where possible and have developed additional water recycling systems in our efforts to utilize fresh water efficiently. Both fresh and sea water require electricity for pumping; and electricity, our single largest expenditure, depends on the cost of fuel which is, in turn, tied to the global price of crude oil.

 

Complex biological processes in the cultivation and processing of our microalgae are influenced by factors beyond our control—the weather, for example. As a result, we cannot assure that adequate production levels will be consistent period over period. To the extent that our production levels are not sufficient to absorb these costs on a period basis, we recognize abnormal and non-inventoriable production costs, including fixed cost variances from normal production capacity, as an expense in the period incurred. Abnormal amounts of freight, handling costs and wasted material (spoilage) are recognized as current-period charges and fixed production overhead costs are allocated to inventory based on the normal capacity of production facilities. Normal capacity is defined as “the production expected to be achieved over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance.” To offset increased production costs, we seek ways to increase production efficiencies in volume yield, potency, and quality consistent with our commitment to produce high-value, high-quality products.

  

We utilize several third-party contractors for encapsulation of our gelcaps and for the packaging of our finished Nutrex Hawaii products. Although these services are available from a limited number of sources, we believe that we have the ability to use other parties if any of the current contractors become unavailable.

 

Fiscal 2018 summary:

 

 

Net sales for the year were $34.1 million, an increase of 6.5% from the prior year, driven primarily by a 13.6% increase in sales of our packaged products, offset by a 23.3% decrease in sales of bulk products. 

 

 

Fiscal 2018 pretax income was $0.9 million compared to pretax loss of $1.2 million in fiscal 2017. The improvement in pretax was the result of increased sales and margins, along with a decrease in legal costs of $1.5 million compared to fiscal 2017.

 

 

Cash provided by operating activities was $1.5 million, an increase of $0.3 million from fiscal 2017 due primarily to the increase in net income, partially offset by growth in inventory and receivables. Cash at March 31, 2018 decreased $0.1 million compared to last year due to slightly higher spending on equipment and leasehold improvements compared to fiscal 2017.

 

17

 

Our fourth quarter was impacted by a variety of unexpected events, which occurred in concert to have an adverse effect on our production of spirulina. First, several fresh water pumps owned by the County of Hawaii were disabled, and the county instituted restrictions on fresh water supply. To mitigate this challenge, we adopted several water saving strategies, some of which may have had a detrimental effect on the growth of spirulina.

 

Additionally, during the fourth quarter, our spirulina production was adversely affected by unusually high rainfall, low temperatures and significant reductions in sunlight. As a result, in addition to lost sales, we experienced higher than normal production costs and variances, which had a negative impact of $0.8 million on our results for the year.

 

In response to these production challenges, at the beginning of April 2018 we undertook a re-inoculation of our spirulina ponds which we believe will allow us to correct the nutrient levels and stabilize production. The re-inoculation process was completed in mid-May 2018. There was no spirulina production during the re-inoculation period.

 

Results of Operations for the 2018, 2017, and 2016 Fiscal Years

 

The following tables present selected consolidated financial data for each of the past three fiscal years ($ in thousands):

 

Consolidated Performance Summary

 

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 

Net sales

  $ 34,115     $ 32,042     $ 31,840  

Net sales increase (decrease)

    6.5

%

    0.6

%

    (5.8

)%

Gross profit

  $ 13,371     $ 12,224     $ 11,866  

Gross profit as % of net sales

    39.2

%

    38.1

%

    37.3

%

Operating expenses

  $ 11,957     $ 12,906     $ 12,651  

Operating expenses as % of net sales

    35.0

%

    40.3

%

    39.7

%

Operating income (loss)

  $ 1,414     $ (682

)

  $ (785

)

Operating income (loss) as % of net sales

    4.1

%

    (2.1

)%

    (2.5

)%

Income tax benefit (expense)

  $ 110     $ (5

)

  $ (3,328

)

Net income (loss)

  $ 1,025     $ (1,215

)

  $ (4,395

)

 

Net sales by product

 

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 

Packaged sales

                       

Astaxanthin packaged

  $ 20,560     $ 18,367     $ 18,347  

Astaxanthin packaged sales increase

    11.9

%

    0.1

%

    4.4

%

Spirulina packaged

  $ 8,815     $ 7,489     $ 7,282  

Spirulina packaged sales increase

    17.7

%

    2.8

%

    1.3

%

Total Packaged sales

  $ 29,375     $ 25,856     $ 25,629  

Total Packaged sales increase

    13.6

%

    0.9

%

    3.5

%

                         

Bulk sales

                       

Astaxanthin bulk

  $ 1,090     $ 990     $ 1,482  

Astaxanthin bulk sales (decrease) increase

    10.1

%

    (33.2

)%

    (67.1

)%

Spirulina bulk

  $ 3,650     $ 5,196     $ 4,729  

Spirulina bulk sales increase (decrease)

    (29.8

)%

    9.9

%

    4.4

%

Total Bulk sales

  $ 4,740     $ 6,186     $ 6,211  

Total Bulk sales (decrease)

    (23.3

)%

    (0.4

)%

    (31.3

)%

 

Fiscal 2018 results compared with Fiscal 2017

 

Net Sales Net sales increased 6.5% in the year ended March 31, 2018 compared with 2017. This increase was driven by a 13.6% increase in sales of our packaged Nutrex Hawaii products, offset by a 23.3% decrease in bulk sales. The increase in packaged sales for both astaxanthin and spirulina was the result of continued growth in sales through Costco and Amazon. The bulk sales decrease is primarily the result of a 29.8% decrease in spirulina sales, related to the production declines we experienced during the year. Demand for our bulk spirulina remains high. Two customers accounted for 32% and 16%, respectively, of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. In fiscal 2017, one customer accounted for 24% of our total revenue.  

 

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Gross Profit Our gross profit percent of net sales increased by 1.1 percentage points compared to fiscal 2017 as a result of a higher mix of packaged sales, which deliver a higher gross profit margin, and lower astaxanthin costs. This improvement is net of $0.8 million of non-inventoriable costs expensed during fiscal 2018 related to lower spirulina production in the 4th quarter of fiscal 2018, compared to $0.2 million in fiscal 2017.

 

Operating Expenses Operating expenses decreased $0.9 million, or 7.4%, in fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017, and decreased as a percentage of net sales by 5.3%.   General and Administrative expenses decreased $1.1 million, or 18.1%, due to a $1.5 million decrease in legal costs, offset by a $0.2 million increase in compensation costs related to restricted stock grants issued to certain Board members, and a $0.3 million increase in incentive compensation, made up of current year accrual of $0.2 million compared to a credit of $0.1 million in fiscal 2017. Sales and Marketing expenses increased $0.2 million, made up of a $0.7 million increase in advertising and promotion costs that drove sales increases at our two largest customers, offset by a $0.5 million reduction in labor costs.

 

Other Expense Other expense is comprised primarily of interest expense on term loans, amortization of debt issuance costs and interest on other financing agreements, offset by a nominal amount of other income.

 

Income Taxes We recorded an income tax benefit of $0.1 million in fiscal 2018 compared to an income tax expense of $0.005 million in fiscal 2017.  Our effective tax rate was (12.0%) for the year compared to (0.4%) for fiscal 2017. The benefit for the year and the change in effective tax rate was the result of the favorable treatment of our AMT tax credit carryforwards under the new Tax Act, allowing us to record receivables totaling $0.1 million.  

 

Fiscal 2017 results compared with Fiscal 2016

 

Net Sales Net sales increased 0.6% in the year ended March 31, 2017 compared with 2016. This increase was driven by a 5.6% increase in spirulina sales, offset by a 2.4% decrease in astaxanthin sales. The increase in spirulina sales was driven by an increase in bulk sales (+9.9%) due to higher production in the last quarter of fiscal 2016 through the third quarter of fiscal 2017. Sales of packaged spirulina also showed modest growth (+2.8%), due to a shift to channels with lower sales discounts. The decrease in astaxanthin sales is due primarily to the discontinuation of a product by one of our European bulk customers. Sales of packaged astaxanthin showed modest growth. One customer accounted for 24% of our total revenue in fiscal 2017. In fiscal 2016, two customers who accounted for 19% and 11% of our total revenue, respectively.

 

Gross Profit Our gross profit percent of net sales increased by 0.8 percentage points compared to fiscal 2016. This improvement was the result of savings from a full year’s utilization of our new extraction facility, coupled with an 8% increase in astaxanthin production with lower production costs. We incurred $0.2 million of non-inventoriable costs during fiscal 2017 related to lower spirulina production in the 4th quarter of fiscal 2017, compared to $0.5 million in fiscal 2016, which included $0.4 million related to start-up costs of our new extraction facility.

 

Operating Expenses Operating expenses increased by $0.3 million, or 2.0%, in fiscal 2017 and increased as a percentage of net sales by 0.6%.   The majority of the increase is in General and Administrative expenses, which increased $0.3 million, or 4.5%, due to an increase in legal fees of $1.2 million related to a shareholder lawsuit, offset by lower costs for stock compensation expense (-$0.4 million), severance costs (-$0.1 million), bad debt expense (-$0.1 million) and audit fees (-$0.1 million).

 

Other Expense Other expense is comprised primarily of interest expense on term loans, amortization of debt issuance costs and interest on other financing agreements, offset by a nominal amount of other income.

 

Income Taxes We recorded income tax expense of $5,000 in fiscal 2017. For fiscal 2016 we recorded a valuation allowance of $3.6 million against our remaining deferred tax asset, resulting in an income tax expense of $3.3 million and an effective tax rate of (312%).

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Sources of Liquidity As of March 31, 2018, we had cash of $1.3 million and working capital of $7.9 million compared to $1.4 million and $6.2 million, respectively, at March 31, 2017. On August 30, 2016, the Credit Agreement, which we entered into with First Foundation Bank (the Bank) on June 3, 2016, became effective. The Credit Agreement allows us to borrow up to $2.0 million on a revolving basis. At March 31, 2018, we had borrowed $0.5 million and had $1.5 million available on the line. On May 29, 2018, we borrowed $0.5 million and had $1.0 million available on the line. The line of credit was renewed on August 30, 2017 and expires on August 30, 2018. We intend to renew or replace it with another line of credit on or before the expiration date.

 

19

 

As of March 31, 2018, we had $6.5 million of term loans payable to the Bank that require the payment of principal and interest monthly through August 2032. Pursuant to the term loans, we are subject to annual financial covenants, customary affirmative and negative covenants and certain subjective acceleration clauses. We are in compliance with these financial covenants at March 31, 2018. At March 31, 2017, our current ratio of 1.92:1, fell short of the Bank's annual requirement of 2.10:1. The Bank provided us with letters stating they found us to be in compliance with this covenant requirement and all other financial covenants as of March 31, 2017, and did not consider this shortfall to be a default under the Loan Agreement.

 

Funds generated by operating activities and available cash continue to be our most significant sources of liquidity for working capital requirements, debt service and funding of maintenance levels of capital expenditures. Based upon our fiscal 2019 operating plan and related cash flow projections and our projected consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2019, cash flows expected to be generated by operating activities and available financing are expected to be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next twelve months, and our current ratio is expected to be in compliance with the annual term loan covenant requirement as of March 31, 2019. However, no assurances can be provided that we will achieve our operating plan and cash flow objectives for the next fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 or our projected consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2019. Such estimates are subject to change based on future results and such change could cause future results to vary significantly from expected results.

 

Our results of operations and financial condition can be affected by numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control and could cause future results of operations to fluctuate materially as it has in the past. Future operating results may fluctuate as a result of changes in sales volumes to our largest customers, weather patterns, increased competition, increased materials, nutrient and energy costs, government regulations and other factors beyond our control.

 

A significant portion of our expense levels are relatively fixed, so the timing of increases in expenses is based in large part on forecasts of future sales. If net sales are below expectations in any given period, the adverse impact on results of operations may be magnified by our inability to adjust spending quickly enough to compensate for the sales shortfall. We may also choose to reduce prices or increase spending in response to market conditions, which may have a material adverse effect on financial condition and results of operations.

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The following table presents our contractual obligations at March 31, 2018 (in thousands):

 

   

Less Than

1 Year

   

2-3

Years

   

4-5

Years

   

After 5

Years

   

Total

 

Term Loans(1)

  $ 589     $ 1,291     $ 1,219     $ 3,431     $ 6,530  

Capital Leases

    66       81                   147  

Interest payments(2)

    364       603       438       956       2,361  

Operating Leases(3)

    626       1,172       991       3,815       6,604  

Purchase obligations(4)

    449                         449  

Total

  $ 2,094     $ 3,147     $ 2,648     $ 8,202     $ 16,091  

 

Note: For additional information refer to Note 6, Long-Term Debt and Note 7, Leases in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

(1)

Includes term loans with a balance of $6,530,000 as of March 31, 2018, secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company.

 

 

(2)

Interest calculated from loan amortization using current rates.

 

 

(3)

Operating lease obligations do not include percentage rent, property taxes and payments for common area maintenance.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

As of March 31, 2018, we had no off-balance sheet arrangements or obligations.

 

Impact of Inflation

 

Inflationary factors such as increases in the costs of materials and labor directly affect the Company's operations. Most of the Company's leases provide for cost-of-living adjustments and require it to pay for insurance and maintenance expenses, all of which are subject to inflation. Additionally, the Company’s future lease cost for new facilities may include potentially escalating costs of real estate and construction. There is no assurance that the Company will be able to pass on increased costs to its customers.

 

Depreciation expense is based on the historical cost to the Company of its fixed assets, and is therefore potentially less than it would be if it were based on current replacement cost. While property and equipment acquired in prior years will ultimately have to be replaced at higher prices, it is expected that replacement will be a gradual process over many years.

20

 

 

(4)

Purchase obligations include agreements to purchase goods or services that are enforceable, are legally binding and specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations do not include agreements that are cancelable without penalty.

 

Cash Flows The following table summarizes our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for each of the past three fiscal years ($ in thousands):

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 

Total cash is provided by (used in):

                       

Operating activities

  $ 1,490     $ 1,220     $ 745  

Investing activities

    (1,070

)

    (847

)

    (3,817

)

Financing activities

    (498

)

    (206

)

    2,086  
                         

Increase (decrease) in cash

  $ (78

)

  $ 167     $ (986

)

  

Cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2018 was the result of $1.0 million in net income and non-cash charges of $2.5 million, totaling $3.5 million. This was offset by an increase in working capital of $2.0 million. The increase in working capital was primarily the result of a $1.1 million increase in astaxanthin safety stock levels and a $0.5 million increase in accounts receivable due to the timing of sales relative to the prior year.

 

Cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2017 was the result of a net loss of $1.2 million offset by non-cash charges of $2.3 million, totaling $1.1 million and a $0.1 million decrease in working capital.

 

Cash used in investing activities in fiscal years 2018 and 2017 includes costs for leasehold improvements and equipment acquisitions as our Kona facility.

 

Cash used in financing activities in fiscal 2018 consists of a $0.7 million in principal payments on debt in the normal course of business, offset by $0.2 million in proceeds from equipment financing.

 

Cash used in financing activities during fiscal 2017 included proceeds of $0.6 million, net, from our line of credit, offset by payments on long-term debt and payments in lieu of stock issuance and settlement of taxes related to the former CEO separation agreement.

 

Effect of Recently Issued Accounting Standards and Estimates

 

 In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017-09 will clarify and reduce both (i) diversity in practice and (ii) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, to a change to the terms and conditions of a share-based payment award. This guidance will become effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. We are currently evaluating the impact of this updated standard. We do not expect this update will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements. 

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash” (“ASU No. 2016-18”).  This update addresses the fact that diversity exists in the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows under Topic 230, Statement of Cash Flows. ASU 2016-18 will take effect for public companies for the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance is applicable to our fiscal year beginning April 1, 2018. We do not anticipate that this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

In August 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU No. 2016-15”). This ASU clarifies and provides specific guidance on eight cash flow classification issues that are not currently addressed by current GAAP and thereby reduces the current diversity in practice. ASU No. 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early application permitted. This guidance is applicable to our fiscal year beginning April 1, 2018. We do not anticipate that this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

21

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU No. 2016-09”). This ASU makes several modifications to Topic 718 related to the accounting for forfeitures, employer tax withholding on share-based compensation, and the financial statement presentation of excess tax benefits or deficiencies. ASU No. 2016-09 also clarifies the statement of cash flows presentation for certain components of share-based awards. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. Amendments requiring recognition of excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies in the income statement must be applied prospectively. Amendments related to the presentation of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flows may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively based on our election. Amendments related to the statement of cash flows presentation of employee taxes paid when an employer withholds shares must be applied retrospectively. As of April 1, 2017, we adopted ASU 2016-09 and elected to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity prospectively and continue to estimate forfeitures rather than recognize them as they occur. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have an impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU No. 2016-02”). The principle objective of ASU No. 2016-02 is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. ASU No. 2016-02 continues to retain a distinction between finance and operating leases but requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and a corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms greater than twelve months. ASU No. 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 is permitted. Entities are required to apply the amendments at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. This guidance is applicable to our fiscal year beginning April 1, 2019. We expect this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated balance sheets due to the recognition of lease rights and obligations as assets and liabilities, respectively. We do not expect this guidance to have a material effect on our consolidated results of operations and cash flows. 

 

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes”. This guidance simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes and requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent in the classified statement of financial position. ASU 2015-17 will take effect for public companies for the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. As required, we adopted this standard as of April 1, 2017 and accordingly all deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current. Prior periods were retrospectively adjusted. 

 

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory: Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory”, that requires inventory not measured using either the last in, first out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method to be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable cost of completion, disposal, and transportation.  Prior to the issuance of the standard, inventory was measured at the lower of cost or market (where market was defined as replacement cost, with a ceiling of net realizable value and floor of net realizable value less a normal profit margin). The new standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and will be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted. As required, we adopted this standard as of April 1, 2017. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.  

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued their converged standard on revenue recognition, Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)”, updated in December 2016 with the release of ASU 2016-20. This standard outlines a single comprehensive model for companies to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the revenue model is that an entity recognizes revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods and services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods and services. In addition, the new standard requires that reporting companies disclose the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.  In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No 2015-14 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date," which deferred the effective date of ASU 2014-09 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with earlier application permitted but not before the original effective date.

 

22

 

We adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method on April 1, 2018. We utilized a cross-functional team to implement the guidance related to the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers. The implementation approach included an assessment of customer contracts aimed at identifying contractual provisions that could result in a change in the timing or the amount of revenue recognized in comparison with prior guidance, as well as assessing the enhanced disclosure requirements of the new guidance. Revenues are generated through the sale of finished products, and will be recognized at the point in time when control of the merchandise is transferred to the customer and in an amount that considers the impact of estimated returns, discounts and other allowances that are variable in nature.  We continue to implement changes to our business processes and controls to support the recognition and disclosure requirements under the new guidance. We have concluded that the impact of adoption of ASC 606 as of April 1, 2018 is not material to our financial statements.

  

Application of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The preparation of financial statements in conformity with those accounting principles requires management to make judgments and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Management regularly re-evaluates its judgments and estimates which are based upon historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management believes that of its significant accounting policies, policies that may involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity are inventory valuations, valuation of equipment and leasehold improvements and long-lived assets, and income taxes.

 

Revenue - We recognize revenues when the customer takes ownership and assumes the risk of loss. We have determined that transfer of title and risk of loss generally occurs when product is received by the customer, except in instances where the shipment terms are explicitly FOB Origin, and accordingly we recognize revenue at the point of delivery to the customer. For shipments with terms of FOB Origin where transfer of title and risk of loss occurs at the point of shipping, revenue is recognized upon shipment to the customer. Sales returns and allowances are estimated and recorded as a reduction to sales in the period in which sales are recorded. We record net shipping charges and sales tax in cost of goods sold.

 

Inventory - We record inventories at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is defined as the sum of the applicable expenditures and charges directly or indirectly incurred in bringing inventories to their existing condition and location. Cost for inventory purposes may be determined under any one of several assumptions as to the flow of cost factors, such as first-in, first-out; average cost; and last-in, first-out. Our inventories are stated using the first-in, first-out method. Inventory values are subject to many critical estimates, including production levels and capacity, changes in the prices paid for raw materials, supplies, and labor, changes in yield, potency, and quality of biomass, changes in processing or production methods, and changes in the carrying value of our inventories resulting from the prices our customers are willing to pay for our products. Such estimates are revised quarterly. Changes in management’s estimates could result in increases or decreases in the recorded amounts of inventory and cost of sales.

 

To the extent that our production levels are not sufficient to absorb all production costs on a period basis, we recognize abnormal production costs, including fixed cost variances from normal production capacity, as an expense in the period incurred. Abnormal amounts of freight, handling costs and wasted material (spoilage) are recognized as current-period charges and fixed production overhead costs are allocated to inventory based on the normal capacity of production facilities. Normal capacity is defined as “the production expected to be achieved over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance.” Changes in management’s estimates could result in increases or decreases in the recorded amounts of inventory and cost of sales.

 

Management reviews inventory levels, inventory turnover, product age and product marketability quarterly to evaluate recoverability and determine if a reserve for inventory is deemed necessary. At March 31, 2018 an inventory reserve in the amount of $5,000 has been recorded, compared to $3,000 as of March 31, 2017.

 

23

 

Equipment and leasehold improvements - Equipment and leasehold improvements are reported at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Self-constructed leasehold improvements include design, construction and supervision costs. These costs are recorded in construction in progress and are transferred to equipment and leasehold improvements when construction is completed and the facilities are placed in service. Long-lived assets, such as property, plant and equipment and purchased intangibles subject to amortization are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the asset’s fair value. We have not recognized any impairment of long lived assets as of March 31, 2018 or 2017.

 

 Stock-Based Compensation - We provide compensation benefits in the form of stock options, restricted stock units and restricted stock grants to employees and non-employee directors. Our stock-based compensation expense is based on the fair value of awards, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, and amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for stock options and restricted stock units (“RSUs”). The fair value of stock options is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. This model requires input assumptions for our expected dividend yield, expected stock price volatility, risk-free interest rate and the expected option term. Restricted stock and RSUs are valued at the fair value of our common stock as of the date of the grant. See Note 9 in the Notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this 10-K.

  

Income taxes - Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. The asset and liability method requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted income tax rates applicable to the period in which the deferred tax assets or liabilities are expected to be recovered or settled. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible.

 

Our judgment is required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets, specifically net operating loss carryforwards, tax credit carryforwards and deductible temporary differences that may reduce taxable income in future periods. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and tax planning opportunities. In the event we change our determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust our valuation allowance with a corresponding impact to income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made. 

 

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

We do not enter into any transactions using derivative financial instruments or derivative commodity instruments and believe that our exposure to market risk associated with other financial instruments is not material.

 

24

 

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

Board of Directors and Stockholders

Cyanotech Corporation

 

Opinion on the financial statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cyanotech Corporation (a Nevada corporation) and subsidiary (the “Company”) as of March 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Basis for opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

 

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2009.

 

Newport Beach, California

June 15, 2018

 

  

25

 

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

March 31,

 

   

2018

   

2017

 
   

(in thousands, except
share data)

 

ASSETS

               

Current assets:

               

Cash

  $ 1,329     $ 1,407  

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $27 in 2018 and $49 in 2017

    2,664       2,135  

Inventories, net

    9,034       7,972  

Deferred tax assets

          157  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

    590       565  

Total current assets

    13,617       12,236  

Equipment and leasehold improvements, net

    15,734       16,712  

Restricted cash

    65        

Other assets

    291       213  

Total assets

  $ 29,707     $ 29,161  
                 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

               

Current liabilities:

               

Line of credit

  $ 500     $ 611  

Current maturities of long-term debt

    655       623  

Customer deposits

    133       119  

Accounts payable

    3,527       3,666  

Accrued expenses

    892       1,013  

Total current liabilities

    5,707       6,032  

Long-term debt, less current maturities

    5,790       6,249  

Deferred tax liabilities

          157  

Other long term liabilities

    103       116  

Total liabilities

    11,600       12,554  

Commitments and contingencies

               

Stockholders’ equity:

               

Preferred stock of $0.01 par value, authorized 10,000,000 shares; no shares issued and outstanding

           

Common stock of $0.02 par value, authorized 50,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding 5,772,032 shares at March 31, 2018 and 5,685,381 shares at March 31, 2017

    115       114  

Additional paid-in capital

    32,051       31,577  

Accumulated deficit

    (14,059

)

    (15,084

)

Total stockholders’ equity

    18,107       16,607  

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

  $ 29,707     $ 29,161  

  

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

 

26

 

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Years ended March 31,

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(in thousands, except per share data)

 
                         

Net sales

  $ 34,115     $ 32,042     $ 31,840  

Cost of sales

    20,744       19,818       19,974  

Gross profit

    13,371       12,224       11,866  

Operating expenses:

                       

General and administrative

    4,956       6,054       5,796  

Sales and marketing

    6,438       6,259       6,222  

Research and development

    563       593       633  

Total operating expense

    11,957       12,906       12,651  

Income (loss) from operations

    1,414       (682

)

    (785

)

Other expense:

                       

Interest expense, net

    (499

)

    (528

)

    (282

)

Total other expense, net

    (499

)

    (528

)

    (282

)

Income (loss) before income taxes

    915       (1,210

)

    (1,067

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

    110       (5

)

    (3,328

)

Net income (loss)

  $ 1,025     $ (1,215

)

  $ (4,395

)

Net income (loss) per share:

                       

Basic

  $ 0.18     $ (0.21

)

  $ (0.79

)

Diluted

  $ 0.18     $ (0.21

)

  $ (0.79

)

Shares used in calculation of net income (loss) per share:

                       

Basic

    5,709       5,658       5,581  

Diluted

    5,781       5,658       5,581  

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements 

 

27

 

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

Years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 

 

   

Common
Stock
Shares

   

Common
Stock

Amount

   

Additional
Paid-in
Capital

   

Accumulated
Deficit

   

Total
Stockholders’
Equity

 
   

(in thousands, except per share data)

                 
                                         

Balances at March 31, 2015

    5,564,799     $ 111     $ 30,846     $ (9,474

)

  $ 21,483  

Issuances of common stock for Director Stock Grants

    13,198             78             78  

Issuance of common stock for exercise of stock options for cash

    21,800       1       74             75  

Compensation expense related to stock options

                587             587  

Net loss

                      (4,395

)

    (4,395

)

Balances at March 31, 2016

    5,599,797       112       31,585       (13,869

)

    17,828  

Issuances of common stock for Director Stock Grants

    19,117             78             78  

Issuance of common stock for exercise of stock options for cash

    18,000       1       50             51  

Issuance of common stock in connection with severance of former executive

    77,500       1       (1

)

           

Shares withheld from former executive for tax payments

    (29,033

)

    (1

)

    (146

)

          (147

)

Settlement agreement with former executive

                    (140

)

          (140

)

Compensation expense related to stock options

          1       151             152  

Net loss

                      (1,215

)

    (1,215

)

Balances at March 31, 2017

    5,685,381       114       31,577       (15,084

)

    16,607  

Issuances of common stock for Director Stock Grants

    57,501       1       275             276  

Issuance of common stock for exercise of stock options for cash

    29,150             75             75  

Compensation expense related to stock options

                124             124  

Net income

                      1,025       1,025  

Balances at March 31, 2018

    5,772,032     $ 115     $ 32,051     $ (14,059

)

  $ 18,107  

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

 

28

 

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

Years ended March 31,

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(in thousands)

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

                       

Net income (loss)

  $ 1,025     $ (1,215

)

  $ (4,395

)

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to cash provided by operating activities:

                       

Loss on sale or disposal of assets

    106       63       11  

Depreciation and amortization

    1,877       1,978       1,520  

Amortization of debt issue costs and other assets

    72       67       57  

Share based compensation expense

    400       232       665  

Provision for doubtful accounts

                130  

Deferred income tax expense

                3,350  

Net (increase) decrease in assets:

                       

Accounts receivable

    (529

)

    848       145  

Inventories

    (1,062

)

    (116

)

    (2,149

)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

    (139

)

    27       (39

)

Net increase (decrease) in liabilities:

                       

Customer deposits

    13       2       86  

Accounts payable

    (139

)

    (334

)

    1,036  

Accrued expenses

    (121

)

    (417

)

    306  

Deferred rent and other liabilities

    (13

)

    85       22  

Net cash provided by operating activities

    1,490       1,220       745  
                         

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

                       

Investment in equipment and leasehold improvements

    (1,005

)

    (847

)

    (4,303

)

Investment in restricted cash

    (65

)

          486  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (1,070

)

    (847

)

    (3,817

)

                         

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

                       

Proceeds from short term notes payable

          600       500  

Net (payments) draws on line of credit

    (111

)

    611        

Payment of short term notes payable

          (600

)

    (500

)

Proceeds from long-term debt, net of costs

    166             2,407  

Payments on capitalized leases

    (90

)

    (77

)

    (44

)

Principal payments on long-term debt

    (538

)

    (504

)

    (352

)

Shares withheld from former executive for tax payments

          (147

)

     

Settlement agreement with former executive

          (140

)

     

Proceeds from issuance of common stock and exercise of stock options

    75       51       75  

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

    (498

)

    (206

)

    2,086  

Net increase (decrease) in cash

    (78

)

    167       (986

)

Cash at beginning of year

    1,407       1,240       2,226  

Cash at end of year

  $ 1,329     $ 1,407     $ 1,240  
                         

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:

                       

Cash paid during the year for:

                       

Interest

  $ 413     $ 431     $ 362  

Income taxes

  $     $     $ 47  

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements

 

29

 

CYANOTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY

 

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

Note 1 Description of Business and Summary of Accounting Policies

 

Description of Business

 

Cyanotech Corporation (the “Company”) cultivates and produces high-value, high-quality natural products derived from microalgae for the nutritional supplements market. The Company currently cultivates, on a large-scale basis, two microalgal species from which its two major product lines are derived. The Company manufactures all of its products in the United States and sells its products worldwide. As the Company’s operations are solely related to microalgae-based products, management of the Company considers its operations to be in one industry segment. Correspondingly, the Company records revenue and cost of sales information by product category.

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cyanotech Corporation and its wholly owned subsidiary, Nutrex Hawaii, Inc. (“Nutrex Hawaii” or “Nutrex”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Liquidity

 

As of March 31, 2018, the Company had cash of $1.3 million and working capital of $7.9 million compared to $1.4 million and $6.2 million, respectively, at March 31, 2017. On August 30, 2016, the Credit Agreement, which the Company and First Foundation Bank (the Bank) entered into on June 3, 2016, became effective. The Credit Agreement allows the Company to borrow up to $2.0 million on a revolving basis. At March 31, 2018, the Company had borrowed $0.5 million and had $1.5 million available on the line. On May 29, 2018, the Company borrowed $0.5 million and had $1.0 million available on the line. The line of credit was renewed on August 30, 2017 and will expire on August 30, 2018, the Company intends to renew or replace it with another line of credit on or before the expiration date.

 

As of March 31, 2018, the Company had $6.4 million of term loans payable to the Bank that require the payment of principal and interest monthly through August 2032. Pursuant to the term loans, the Company is subject to annual financial covenants, customary affirmative and negative covenants and certain subjective acceleration clauses. The Company was in compliance with these financial covenants at March 31, 2018. At March 31, 2017, the Company's current ratio of 1.92:1, fell short of the Bank's annual requirement of 2.10:1. The Bank provided the Company with a letter stating they found the Company to be in compliance with this covenant requirement and all other financial covenants as of March 31, 2017, and did not consider this shortfall to be a default under the Loan Agreements.

 

Funds generated by operating activities and available cash continue to be the Company's most significant sources of liquidity for working capital requirements, debt service and funding of maintenance levels of capital expenditures. Based upon the Company's fiscal 2019 operating plan and related cash flow projections and the Company's projected consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2019, cash flows expected to be generated by operating activities and available financing are expected to be sufficient to fund the Company's operations for at least the next twelve months, and the Company's current ratio is expected to be in compliance with the annual term loan covenant requirement as of March 31, 2019. However, no assurances can be provided that the Company will achieve its operating plan and cash flow objectives for the next fiscal year or its projected consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2019. Such estimates are subject to change based on future results and such change could cause future results to vary significantly from expected results.

 

 

Estimates and Assumptions

 

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period reported. Management reviews these estimates and assumptions periodically and reflects the effect of revisions in the period that they are determined to be necessary. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates and assumptions. Significant estimates include forecast of future operating results, cash flows and financial position, inventory valuation and determination of production capacity and abnormal product costs, reserve for inventory, sales allowances, allowance for doubtful accounts and valuation of deferred tax assets.

 

Financial Instruments

 

Cash primarily consists of cash on hand and cash in bank deposits.

 

The Company applies a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

 

 

Level 1  —

Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company has the ability to access.

 

Level 2  —

Inputs to the valuation methodology include:

 

 

Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets;

 

Quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;

 

Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; and

 

Inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.

  

If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.

 

 

Level 3  —

Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value.

 

Cash, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses - Due to the short-term nature of these instruments, management believes that the carrying amounts approximate fair value.

 

Line of Credit and Long-Term Debt - The carrying amount of our line of credit and long-term debt approximates fair value as interest rates applied to the underlying debt are adjusted quarterly to market interest rates, which approximate current interest rates for similar debt instruments of comparable maturities.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

The Company maintains its cash accounts with several banks located in Hawaii. The total cash balances are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000 per bank. The Company had cash balances at March 31, 2018 that exceeded the balance insured by the FDIC by $829,000. Two customers accounted for 32% and 16%, respectively, of our total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. Three customers accounted for 77% of accounts receivable at March 31, 2018. One customer accounted for 24% of total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017. Three customers accounted for 60% of accounts receivable at March 31, 2017. Two customers accounted for 19% and 11%, respectively, of total net sales in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. Two customers accounted for 44% of accounts receivable at March 31, 2016. Our top ten customers generated 70%, 60% and 58% of our net sales during fiscal 2018, fiscal 2017 and fiscal 2016, respectively. 

 

 

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

 

Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not accrue interest. Credit is extended based on evaluation of the customer's financial condition. Collateral is not required. The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects management’s best estimate of probable credit losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. Management determines the allowance based on historical experience, specifically identified nonpaying accounts and other currently available evidence. Management reviews its allowance for doubtful accounts monthly with a focus on significant individual past due balances over 90 days. All other balances are reviewed on a pooled basis. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The Company does not have any off-balance sheet credit exposure related to its customers or otherwise.

 

Inventories, net

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Net realizable value is defined as sales price less cost to dispose and a normal profit margin. Inventory costs include materials, labor, overhead and third party costs.

 

Management provides a reserve against inventory for known or expected inventory obsolescence. The reserve is determined by specific review of inventory items for product age and quality which may affect salability. At March 31, 2018 and 2017, the inventory reserve was $5,000 and $3,000, respectively.

 

The Company recognizes abnormal production costs, including fixed cost variances from normal production capacity, as an expense in the period incurred. Abnormal amounts of freight, handling costs and wasted material (spoilage) are recognized as current period charges and fixed production overhead costs are allocated to inventory based on the normal capacity of production facilities. Normal capacity is defined as “the production expected to be achieved over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance.” The Company expensed abnormal production costs of $538,000, $120,000 and $395,000 to cost of sales for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Non-inventoriable fixed costs were $271,000, $134,000 and $149,000 for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and have been included in cost of sales.

  

Equipment and Leasehold Improvements, net

 

Equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization are provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives for equipment and furniture and fixtures, and the shorter of the land lease term (see Notes 3 and 6) or estimated useful lives for leasehold improvements as follows:

 

Equipment (in years)

 

3

to

10

 

Furniture and fixtures (in years) 

 

3

to

7

 

Leasehold improvements (in years) 

 

10

to

25

 

 

Capital project costs are accumulated in construction-in-progress until completed, at which time the costs are transferred to the relevant asset and commence depreciation. Repairs and Maintenance costs are expensed in the period incurred. Repairs and maintenance that significantly increase the useful life or value of the asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining life of the asset. The Company capitalizes interest cost incurred on funds used to construct property, plant, and equipment. The capitalized interest is recorded as part of the asset to which it relates and is amortized over the asset’s estimated useful life.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Management reviews long-lived assets, such as equipment, leasehold improvements and purchased intangibles subject to amortization for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the asset’s fair value. Assets to be disposed of and related liabilities would be separately presented in the consolidated balance sheet. Assets to be disposed of would be reported at the lower of the carrying value or fair value less costs to sell and would not be depreciated.

 

 

 Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations

 

Management evaluates quarterly the potential liability for asset retirement obligations under the Company’s lease for its principal facility and corporate headquarters. No liability has been recognized as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 (see Note 7).

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We recognize revenues when the customer takes ownership and assumes the risk of loss. We have determined that transfer of title and risk of loss generally occurs when product is received by the customer, except in instances where the shipment terms are explicitly FOB Origin, and accordingly we recognize revenue at the point of delivery to the customer. For shipments with terms of FOB Origin where transfer of title and risk of loss occurs at the point of shipping, revenue is recognized upon shipment to the customer. Sales returns and allowances are estimated and recorded as a reduction to sales in the period in which sales are recorded. We record net shipping charges and sales tax in cost of goods sold.

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of labor, benefits and outside research.

 

Advertising

 

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Total advertising expense for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 was $1,548,000, $813,000 and $942,000, respectively.

  

Income Taxes

 

Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. The asset and liability method requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using income tax rates applicable to the period in which the tax difference is expected to reverse.

 

Judgment is required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets, specifically net operating loss carryforwards, tax credit carryforwards and deductible temporary differences that may reduce taxable income in future periods. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and tax planning opportunities. In the event we change our determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust our valuation allowance with a corresponding impact to income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made.

 

In evaluating a tax position for recognition, management evaluates whether it is more-likely-than-not that a position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. If the tax position meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the tax position is measured and recognized in the Company’s financial statements as the largest amount of tax benefit that, in management’s judgment, is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. As of March 31, 2018 and 2017, there was no significant liability for income tax associated with unrecognized tax benefits.

 

The Company recognizes accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits as well as any related penalties in interest expense in its condensed consolidated statements of operations. As of the date of adoption and during the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, there was no accrual for the payment of interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions.

 

 

Share-Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for share-based payment arrangements using fair value. The Company currently has no liability-classified awards. Equity-classified awards, including grants of restricted stock, restricted stock units and employee stock options, are measured at the grant-date fair value of the award and are not subsequently remeasured unless an award is modified. The cost of equity-classified awards is recognized in the statement of operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide the service in exchange for the award, or the vesting period. All of the Company’s restricted stock, restricted stock units and stock options are service-based awards, and considered equity-classified awards; as such, they are reflected in Equity and Stock Compensation Expense accounts. All stock-based compensation has been classified as general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations.

  

The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of each option award. Expected volatilities are based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock over a period consistent with that of the expected term of the options. The expected term of the options are estimated based on factors such as vesting periods, contractual expiration dates and historical exercise behavior. The risk-free rates for periods within the contractual life of the options are based on the yields of U.S. Treasury instruments with terms comparable to the estimated option terms.

 

Per Share Amounts

 

Basic earnings (loss) per common share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) for the year by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated by dividing net income for the year by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year plus the number of potentially dilutive common shares (“dilutive securities”) that were outstanding during the year. Dilutive securities include restricted stock units and stock options granted pursuant to the Company’s stock option plans. Dilutive securities related to the Company’s stock option plans are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per common share using the treasury stock method. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of earnings per share in periods in which a net loss is reported, as their effect would be antidilutive. A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted income (loss) per common share calculations for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 is presented in Note 11. 

  

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

 In May 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Scope of Modification Accounting. ASU 2017-09 will clarify and reduce both (i) diversity in practice and (ii) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, to a change to the terms and conditions of a share-based payment award. This guidance will become effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this updated standard. The Company does not believe this update will have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements. 

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash” (“ASU No. 2016-18”).  This update addresses the fact that diversity exists in the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows under Topic 230, Statement of Cash Flows. ASU 2016-18 will take effect for public companies for the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. This guidance is applicable to the Company’s fiscal year beginning April 1, 2018. The Company does not anticipate that this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

In August 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU No. 2016-15”). This ASU clarifies and provides specific guidance on eight cash flow classification issues that are not currently addressed by current GAAP and thereby reduces the current diversity in practice. ASU No. 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017, with early application permitted. This guidance is applicable to the Company’s fiscal year beginning April 1, 2018. The Company does not anticipate that this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

 

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU No. 2016-09”). This ASU makes several modifications to Topic 718 related to the accounting for forfeitures, employer tax withholding on share-based compensation, and the financial statement presentation of excess tax benefits or deficiencies. ASU No. 2016-09 also clarifies the statement of cash flows presentation for certain components of share-based awards. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. Amendments requiring recognition of excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies in the income statement must be applied prospectively. Amendments related to the presentation of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flows may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively based on the Company’s election. Amendments related to the statement of cash flows presentation of employee taxes paid when an employer withholds shares must be applied retrospectively. As of April 1, 2017, the Company adopted ASU 2016-09 and elected to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity prospectively and continues to estimate forfeitures rather than recognize them as they occur. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have an impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. 

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU No. 2016-02”). The principle objective of ASU No. 2016-02 is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. ASU No. 2016-02 continues to retain a distinction between finance and operating leases but requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and a corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms greater than twelve months. ASU No. 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 is permitted. Entities are required to apply the amendments at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. This guidance is applicable to the Company’s fiscal year beginning April 1, 2019. The Company expects this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated balance sheets due to the recognition of lease rights and obligations as assets and liabilities, respectively. The Company does not expect this guidance to have a material effect on its consolidated results of operations and cash flows. 

 

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes”. This guidance simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes and requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent in the classified statement of financial position. ASU 2015-17 will take effect for public companies for the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. As required, the Company adopted this standard as of April 1, 2017 and accordingly all deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current. Prior periods were retrospectively adjusted. 

 

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory: Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory”, that requires inventory not measured using either the last in, first out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method to be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable cost of completion, disposal, and transportation.  Prior to the issuance of the standard, inventory was measured at the lower of cost or market (where market was defined as replacement cost, with a ceiling of net realizable value and floor of net realizable value less a normal profit margin). The new standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and will be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted. As required, the Company adopted this standard as of April 1, 2017. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company's financial position or results of operations.  

 

In May 2014, the FASB issued their converged standard on revenue recognition, Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)”, updated in December 2016 with the release of ASU 2016-20. This standard outlines a single comprehensive model for companies to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the revenue model is that an entity recognizes revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods and services in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods and services. In addition, the new standard requires that reporting companies disclose the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.  In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No 2015-14 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date," which deferred the effective date of ASU 2014-09 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with earlier application permitted but not before the original effective date.

 

 

The Company adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method on April 1, 2018. The Company utilized a cross-functional team to implement the guidance related to the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers. The implementation approach included an assessment of customer contracts aimed at identifying contractual provisions that could result in a change in the timing or the amount of revenue recognized in comparison with prior guidance, as well as assessing the enhanced disclosure requirements of the new guidance. Revenues are generated through the sale of finished products, and will be recognized at the point in time when control of the merchandise is transferred to the customer and in an amount that considers the impact of estimated returns, discounts and other allowances that are variable in nature.  The Company continues to implement changes to its business processes and controls to support the recognition and disclosure requirements under the new guidance. The Company has concluded that the impact of adoption of ASC 606 as of April 1, 2018 is not material to its financial statements.

 

 

 

Note 2 Inventories, net

 

Inventories consist of the following as of March 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

   

2018

   

2017

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Raw materials

  $ 410     $ 347  

Work in process

    2,602       2,036  

Finished goods(1)

    5,878       5,460  

Supplies

    144       129  

Inventories, net

  $ 9,034     $ 7,972  

                

(1)

Net of reserve for obsolescence of $5,000 and $3,000 at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

  

 

Note 3 Equipment and Leasehold Improvements, net

 

Equipment and leasehold improvements consists of the following as of March 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

   

2018

   

2017

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Equipment(1)

  $ 17,935     $ 17,492  

Leasehold improvements

    14,248       13,892  

Furniture and fixtures

    348       380  
      32,531       31,764  

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization

    (17,346

)

    (15,835

)

Construction in-progress

    549       783  

Equipment and leasehold improvements, net

  $ 15,734     $ 16,712  

               

(1)

Includes $373,000 of equipment under capital lease at March 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively, with accumulated amortization of $175,000 and $106,000, respectively.

 

The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable. No such event occurred during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. The Company recognized a loss on disposal of equipment, leasehold improvements and intangible assets in the amount of $106,000, $63,000 and $11,000 in fiscal 2018, 2017 and 2016 respectively. Depreciation and amortization expense was $1,877,000, $1,978,000 and $1,520,000 for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

The Company capitalized interest in the amount of $0, $0 and $173,000 for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

 

Note 4

Notes Payable

 

On August 30, 2016, the Revolving Credit Agreement (the “Credit Agreement”), which the Company and First Foundation Bank (“the Bank”) entered into on June 3, 2016, became effective after the Company and the Bank received the necessary approvals from the State of Hawaii to secure the lien on the Company’s leasehold property in Kona, Hawaii. The Credit Agreement allows the Company to borrow up to $2,000,000 on a revolving basis. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at the Wall Street Journal prime rate (4.75% at March 31, 2018) + 2%, floating. The Credit Agreement includes various covenants as defined in the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement also contains standard acceleration provisions in the event of a default by the Company. At March 31, 2018, the Company had borrowed $500,000 under the Credit Agreement and had $1,500,000 available on the line. The line of credit will be subject to renewal upon expiration on August 30, 2018.

 

On May 29, 2018, the Company borrowed $500,000 under the Credit Agreement and had $1,000,000 available on the line.

 

 

The Credit Agreement grants the Bank the following security interests in the Company’s property: (a) a lien on the Company’s leasehold interest in its Kona facility; (b) an assignment of the Company’s interest in leases and rents on its Kona facility; and (c) a security interest in all fixtures, furnishings and equipment related to or used by the Company at the Kona facility. Each security interest is further subject to the terms of the Credit Agreement.

 

 

Note 5

Accrued Expenses

 

Components of accrued expenses as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 are as follows:

 

   

2018

   

2017

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Wages, commissions, bonus and profit sharing

  $ 707     $ 793  

Rent and utilities

    69       69  

Other accrued expenses

    116       151  

Total accrued expenses

  $ 892     $ 1,013  

  

 

Note 6 Long-Term Debt

 

Long-term debt consists of the following as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 as follows:

 

   

2018

   

2017

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Long-term debt

  $ 6,678     $ 7,139  

Less current maturities

    (655

)

    (623

)

Long-term debt, excluding current maturities

    6,023       6,516  

Less unamortized debt issuance costs

    (233

)

    (267

)

Total long-term debt, net of current maturities and unamortized debt issuance costs

  $ 5,790     $ 6,249  

 

Term Loans

 

The Company executed a loan agreement with a lender providing for $2,500,000 in aggregate credit facilities (the “2015 Loan”) secured by substantially all the Company’s assets, pursuant to a Term Loan Agreement dated July 30, 2015 (the “2015 Loan Agreement”). The 2015 Loan Agreement is evidenced by a promissory note in the amount of $2,500,000, the repayment of which is partially guaranteed under the provisions of a United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Rural Development Guarantee program. The proceeds of the 2015 Loan were used to pay off a $500,000 short term note payable that matured on September 18, 2015, acquire new processing equipment and leasehold improvements at the Company’s Kona, Hawaii facility.

 

The provisions of the 2015 Loan require the payment of principal and interest until its maturity on September 1, 2022, the obligation fully amortizes over seven (7) years. Interest on the 2015 Loan accrues on the outstanding principal balance at an annual variable rate equal to the published Wall Street Journal prime rate (4.75% at March 31, 2018) plus 2.0% and is adjustable on the first day of each calendar quarter and fixed for that quarter. At no time shall the annual interest rate be less than 6.00%. The 2015 Loan has a prepayment penalty of 5% for any prepayment made prior to the first anniversary of the date of the 2015 Loan Agreement, which penalty is reduced by 1% each year thereafter until the fifth anniversary of such date, after which there is no prepayment penalty. The balance under the 2015 Loan was $1,726,000 and $2,049,000 at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

The 2015 Loan includes a one-time origination and guaranty fee totaling $113,900 and an annual renewal fee payable in the amount of 0.50% of the USDA guaranteed portion of the outstanding principal balance as of December 31 of each year, beginning December 31, 2015. The USDA has guaranteed 80% of all amounts owing under the 2015 Loan. The Company is subject to financial covenants and customary affirmative and negative covenants. The Company was in compliance with these financial covenants at March 31, 2018.

 

 

The Company executed a loan agreement with a lender providing for $5,500,000 in aggregate credit facilities (the “Loan”) secured by substantially all the Company’s assets, including a mortgage on the Company's interest in its lease at the National Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, pursuant to a Term Loan Agreement dated August 14, 2012 (the “Loan Agreement”). The Loan Agreement is evidenced by promissory notes in the amounts of $2,250,000 and $3,250,000, the repayment of which is partially guaranteed under the provisions of a USDA Rural Development Guarantee. The proceeds of the Loan were used to acquire processing equipment and leasehold improvements at its Kona, Hawaii facility.

 

The provisions of the Loan required the payment of interest only for the first 12 months of the term; thereafter, and until its maturity on August 14, 2032, the obligation fully amortizes over nineteen (19) years. Interest on the Loan accrues on the outstanding principal balance at an annual variable rate equal to the published Wall Street Journal prime rate (4.75% at March 31, 2018) plus 1.0% and is adjustable on the first day of each calendar quarter and fixed for that quarter. At no time shall the annual interest rate be less than 5.50%. The balance under this Loan was $4,648,000 and $4,854,000 at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

  

The Loan included a one-time origination and guaranty fees totaling $214,500 and an annual renewal fee payable in the amount of 0.25% of the USDA guaranteed portion of the outstanding principal balance as of December 31 of each year, beginning December 31, 2012. The USDA has guaranteed 80% of all amounts owing under the Loan. The Company is subject to financial covenants and customary affirmative and negative covenants. The Company was in compliance with these financial covenants at March 31, 2018.

 

On October 6, 2017, the Company entered into an Equipment Finance Agreement (the “Equipment Agreement”) with a lender, which provides up to $175,000 of financing for equipment. The interest rate on this loan is 4.75%. The provisions of the Equipment Agreement require the payment of principal and interest until its maturity on October 31, 2022, the obligation fully amortizes over five (5) years. The balance under this loan was $156,000 at March 31, 2018. $65,000 of the proceeds from this loan are classified as restricted cash until drawn upon to acquire the equipment.

 

Capital Leases

 

In August 2016, the Company executed a capital lease agreement with Thermo Fisher Financial providing for $52,000 in equipment, secured by the equipment financed. The capital lease matures in May 2019 and is payable in 36 equal monthly payments. The interest rate under this capital lease is 12.90%. The balance under this lease was $28,000 and $43,000 at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

In February 2016, the Company executed a capital lease agreement with Bank of the West providing for $51,000 in equipment, secured by the equipment financed. The capital lease matures in March 2021 and is payable in 60 equal monthly payments. The interest rate under this capital lease is 4.18%. The balance under this lease was $32,000 and $42,000 at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively.

 

In July 2015, the Company executed a capital lease agreement with Huntington Technology Finance providing for $174,000 in equipment, secured by the equipment financed. The capital lease matures in July 2020 and is payable in 60 equal monthly payments. The interest rate under this capital lease is 6.57%. The balance under this lease was $88,000 and $121,000 at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively.

 

In March 2015, the Company executed a capital lease agreement with Thermo Fisher Financial providing for $86,000 in equipment, secured by the equipment financed. The capital lease matures in March 2018 and is payable in 36 equal monthly payments. The interest rate under this capital lease is 6.5%. The balance under this lease was $0 and $30,000 at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

 

 Future principal payments under the loan and capital lease agreements as of March 31, 2018 are as follows:

 

Year ending March 31

 

(in thousands)

 

2019

  $ 655  

2020

    682  

2021

    690  

2022

    707  

2023

    513  

Thereafter

    3,431  

Total principal payments

  $ 6,678  

 

 

 

Note 7 Leases

 

The Company’s principal facility and its corporate headquarters are located at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (“NELHA”) at Keahole Point in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. The property is leased from the State of Hawaii under a 40-year commercial lease expiring in 2035. Under the terms of the existing NELHA lease, the Company could be required to remove improvements at the end of the lease term. Under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, an entity should recognize the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation in the period in which the retirement obligation is incurred, if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. If such an estimate cannot be made in the period the asset retirement obligation is incurred, the liability should be recognized when the fair value can be reasonably estimated. Based on communications with NELHA, management does not believe the projected cost for such removal to be material to the consolidated financial statements, or likely, given historical practices. However, conditions could change in the future. It is not possible to predict such changes or estimate any impact thereof.

 

The Company leases facilities, equipment and land under operating leases expiring through 2035. The land lease provides for contingent rentals in excess of minimum rental commitments based on a percentage of the Company’s sales. Contingent rental payments for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $49,000, $80,000 and $65,000, respectively.

  

Future minimum lease payments under non-cancelable operating leases at March 31, 2018 are as follows:

 

Year ending March 31

 

(in thousands)

 

2019

  $ 626  

2020

    636  

2021

    536  

2022

    535  

2023

    456  

Thereafter

    3,815  

Total minimum lease payments

  $ 6,604  

 

Rent expense, including contingent rent, under operating leases amounted to $578,000, $605,000 and $622,000 for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

 

Note 8 Other Commitments and Contingencies

 

From time to time, the Company may become party to lawsuits and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business relating to employment, intellectual property, and other matters. There were no significant legal matters outstanding at March 31, 2018.

 

As of March 31, 2018, the Company has entered into purchase obligations of $449,000, including agreements to purchase goods or services that are enforceable, are legally binding and specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations do not include agreements that are cancelable without penalty.

  

 

Note 9 Share-Based Compensation

 

 As of March 31, 2018, the Company had two equity-based compensation plans: the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the 2016 Plan) and the 2014 Independent Director Stock Option and Restricted Stock Grant Plan (the “2014 Directors Plan”). The Company has also issued stock options, which remain outstanding as of March 31, 2018, under two equity-based compensation plans which have expired according to their terms: the 2005 Stock Option Plan (the “2005 Plan”) and the 2004 Independent Director Stock Option and Stock Grant Plan (the “2004 Directors Plan”). These plans allowed the Company to award stock options and shares of restricted common stock to eligible employees, certain outside consultants and independent directors. No additional awards will be issued under the 2005 Plan or the 2004 Directors Plan.

 

 

On August 25, 2016, the Company’s shareholders approved the 2016 Plan as a successor to the 2005 Plan, authorizing the Board of Directors to provide incentive to the Company’s officers, employees and certain independent consultants through equity based compensation in the form of stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock appreciation rights and other stock based awards (together, “Stock Awards”) and performance shares and performance units (together, “Performance Awards”). Awards under the 2016 Plan are limited to the authorized amount of 1,300,000 shares, up to 600,000 of which are available for issuance in connection with Performance Awards and Stock Awards. As of March 31, 2018, there were 1,131,992 shares available for grant under the 2016 Plan.

 

On August 28, 2014, the Company’s shareholders approved the 2014 Directors Plan authorizing the Board of Directors to provide incentive to the Company’s independent directors through equity based compensation in the form of stock options and restricted stock. Awards under the 2014 Directors Plan are limited to the authorized amount of 350,000 shares. As of March 31, 2018, there were 231,623 shares available for grant under the 2014 Directors Plan.

  

The following table presents shares authorized, available for future grant and outstanding under each of the Company’s plans:

 

   

As of March 31, 2018

 
   

Authorized

   

Available

   

Outstanding

 
                         

2016 Plan

    1,300,000       1,131,992       159,675  

2014 Directors Plan

    350,000       231,623       12,000  

2005 Plan

                445,400  

2004 Directors Plan

                12,000  

Total

    1,650,000       1,363,615       629,075  

  

Stock Options

 

All stock option grants made under the equity-based compensation plans were issued at exercise prices no less than the Company’s closing stock price on the date of grant. Options under the 2016 Plan, 2005 Plan and 2014 Directors Plan were determined by the Board of Directors or the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors in accordance with the provisions of the respective plans. The terms of each option grant include vesting, exercise, and other conditions are set forth in a Stock Option Agreement evidencing each grant. No option can have a life in excess of ten (10) years. The Company records compensation expense for employee stock options based on the estimated fair value of the options on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The model requires various assumptions, including a risk-free interest rate, the expected term of the options, the expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the options, and the expected dividend yield. Compensation expense for employee stock options is recognized ratably over the vesting term. Compensation expense recognized for options issued under the Plans was $62,000, $154,000 and $587,000 for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

 A summary of option activity under the Company’s stock plans for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 is presented below:

 

Option Activity

 

Shares

   

Weighted
Average
Exercise Price

   

Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term

(in years)

   

Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2015

    1,433,216     $ 4.08       6.4     $ 6,221,909  

Granted

    6,000       5.91                  

Exercised

    (21,800

)

    3.26                  

Forfeited

    (732,416

)

    3.59                  

Outstanding at March 31, 2016

    685,000     $ 4.65       5.7     $ 566,323  

Granted

    6,000       4.08                  

Exercised

    (18,000

)

    2.77                  

Forfeited

    (170,000

)

    6.44                  

Outstanding at March 31, 2017

    503,000     $ 4.10       4.7     $ 145,946  

Granted

    120,000       3.53                  

Exercised

    (29,150

)

    2.59                  

Forfeited

    (3,700

)

    4.50                  

Expired

    (750

)

    1.60                  

Outstanding at March 31, 2018

    589,400     $ 4.06       4.9     $ 675,300  

Exercisable at March 31, 2018

    469,400     $ 4.20       3.8     $ 486,900  

 

 

The aggregate intrinsic value in the table above is before applicable income taxes and represents the excess amount over the exercise price optionees would have received if all options had been exercised on the last business day of the period indicated, based on the Company’s closing stock price of $5.10, $3.85, $4.98 and $8.42 at March 31, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015 respectively. The total intrinsic value of stock options exercised during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $67,000, $23,000 and $58,000, respectively.

 

A summary of the Company’s non-vested options for the year ended March 31, 2018 is presented below:

 

Nonvested Options

 

Shares

   

Weighted
Average
Grant-Date
Fair Value

 

Nonvested at March 31, 2017

    19,500     $ 2.93  

Granted

    120,000       1.81  

Vested

    (19,500

)

    2.93  

Nonvested at March 31, 2018

    120,000     $ 1.81  

 

The weighted average grant-date fair value of stock options granted during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 was $67,000, $5,000 and $7,000, respectively. The total grant-date fair values of stock options that vested during fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $57,000, $332,000 and $651,000, respectively.

 

The following table summarizes the weighted average characteristics of outstanding stock options as of March 31, 2018:

 

        Outstanding Options     Exercisable Options  
Range of Exercise Prices   Number
of Shares
    Remaining
Life (Years)
    Weighted
Average Exercise Price
    Number of
Shares
    Weighted
Average Exercise Price
 

$1.60

- $3.70     172,200       5.3     $ 3.05       97,200     $ 2.81  

$3.71

- $4.42     239,700       4.7     $ 3.83       194,700     $ 3.83  

$4.43

- $5.40     95,000       5.2     $ 5.00       95,500     $ 5.00  

$5.41

- $7.08     82,500       4.6     $ 5.77       82,500     $ 5.77  

Total stock options

    589,400       4.9     $ 4.06       469,400     $ 4.20  

 

The range of fair value assumptions related to options granted during the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were as follows:

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 

Exercise Price

  $ 3.83     $ 4.08     $ 5.91  

Volatility

    51.91

%

    51.13

%

    50.00

%

Risk Free Rate

    2.50

%

    0.60

%

    0.22

%

Vesting Period (in years)

    3.0       0.5       0.5  

Forfeiture Rate

    0.00

%

    0.00

%

    0.00

%

Expected Life (in years)

    6.00       1.00       1.00  

Dividend Rate

    0

%

    0

%

    0

%

 

As of March 31, 2018, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to all unvested stock options was $181,000, which is expected to be expensed over a weighted average period of 2.3 years. 

 

Restricted Stock

 

Grants of fully vested restricted stock issued to Non-Employee Directors was 57,501, 19,117 and 13,198 shares for the three years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Compensation expense recognized for fully vested restricted stock grants issued under the 2014 Directors Plan was $276,000, $78,000 and $78,000 for the three years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”)

 

RSUs are service-based awards granted to eligible employees under our 2016 Plan. Compensation expense recognized for RSUs issued under the 2016 Plan was $62,000, $0 and $0 for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

The following table summarizes information related to awarded RSUs:

 

Nonvested Restricted Stock Units

 

Shares

   

Weighted
Average
Grant Price

 

Nonvested restricted stock units at March 31, 2017

    25,000     $ 3.85  

Granted

    28,074     $ 3.92  

Vested

    (8,333

)

  $ 3.85  

Exercised

        $  

Forfeited

    (5,066

)

  $ 3.92  

Nonvested restricted stock units at March 31, 2018

    39,675     $ 3.89  

 

As of March 31, 2018, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested restricted stock units was $122,730.

 

On April 5, 2018, 1,474 RSUs were awarded to employees of the Company. This award is valued at $5.25 per share, the closing market price of Cyanotech common stock on the grant date, and vests over a period of two years.

 

 

 Note 10 Common and Preferred Stock

 

The Company has authorized a total of sixty million shares of which fifty million shares are authorized common stock and ten million shares are authorized preferred stock. None of the preferred stock was issued or outstanding at March 31, 2018 and 2017. Under the terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation, the Board of Directors is authorized to determine or alter the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the Company’s authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock.

  

 

Note 11 Earnings (Loss) Per Share

 

Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed on the basis of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is computed on the basis of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus the potentially dilutive effect of outstanding stock options using the treasury stock method.

 

Reconciliations between the numerator and the denominator of the basic and diluted income (loss) per share computations for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are as follows: 

 

   

Net Income

(loss)
(Numerator)

   

Shares
(Denominator)

   

Per Share
Amount

 
   

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

Year ended March 31, 2018:

                       

Basic income per share

  $ 1,025       5,709     $ 0.18  

Effective dilutive securities—Common stock options

          72        

Diluted income per share

  $ 1,025       5,781     $ 0.18  

Year ended March 31, 2017:

                       

Basic and diluted loss per share

  $ (1,215

)

    5,658     $ (0.21

)

Year ended March 31, 2016:

                       

Basic and diluted loss per share

  $ (4,395

)

    5,581     $ (0.79

)

 

Basic and diluted per share amounts are the same in periods of a net loss, because common share equivalents are anti-dilutive when a net loss is recorded. Diluted earnings per share does not include the impact of common stock options totaling 120,000, 6,000 and 58,000 for the fiscal years ending March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, as the effect of their inclusion would be anti-dilutive. Restricted stock units become dilutive within the period granted and remain dilutive until the units vest and are issued as common stock. Diluted earnings per share does not include the impact of restricted stock units totaling 39,675 and 25,000 for the fiscal years ending March 31, 2018 and 2017, as the effect of their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.

 

 

 

Note 12 Profit Sharing Plan and 401k Plan

 

The Company sponsors a profit sharing plan for all employees not covered under a separate management incentive plan. Under the profit sharing plan, a percentage determined by the Board of Directors of pre-tax profits on a quarterly basis may be allocated to non-management employees at management’s discretion. The profit sharing bonus may be distributed all in cash on an after-tax basis or distributed half in cash (on an after-tax basis) and the remainder deposited in an employee’s 401(k) account on a pre-tax basis. Employees may also make voluntary pre-tax contributions to their 401(k) accounts. Compensation expense under this plan was approximately $91,000, $4,000 and $0 for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Additionally, the Company makes a retirement contribution to all employees individual 401(k) accounts equal to two percent of each employee’s base pay for each bi-weekly pay period on a pre-tax basis. Retirement expense under this plan was approximately $117,000, $139,000 and $147,000 for fiscal years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

  

 

Note 13 Product Line and Geographic Information

 

Net sales by product line for the years 2018, 2017 and 2016 are as follows:

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Net sales:

                       

Natural astaxanthin products

                       

BioAstin®

  $ 21,650     $ 19,357     $ 19,829  

Spirulina products

                       

Spirulina Pacifica®

    12,465       12,685       12,011  
    $ 34,115     $ 32,042     $ 31,840  

 

Net sales by geographic region for the years 2018, 2017 and 2016 are as follows:

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(dollars in thousands)

 

Net sales(1):

                                               

United States

  $ 26,348       77

%

  $ 22,978       72

%

  $ 22,711       71

%

Asia / Pacific

    3,238       9

%

    4,017       13

%

    4,130       13

%

Europe

    2,540       8

%

    3,652       11

%

    2,990       9

%

Other

    1,989       6

%

    1,395       4

%

    2,009       7

%

    $ 34,115       100

%

  $ 32,042       100

%

  $ 31,840       100

%

 


(1)

Net sales are attributed to countries based on location of customer.

 

 

Note 14 Income Taxes

 

Income tax benefit (expense) for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 consisted of:

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Current:

                       

Federal

  $ 112     $ (2

)

  $ (1

)

State

    (2

)

    (3

)

    23  

Total current benefit (expense)

    110       (5

)

    22  

Deferred:

                       

Federal

                (3,027

)

State

                (323

)

Total deferred expense

                (3,350

)

Income tax benefit (expense)

  $ 110     $ (5

)

  $ (3,328

)

 

 

On December 22, 2017 H.R. 1, originally known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, (the “Tax Act”) was enacted. Among the significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, the Tax Act lowers the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (“Federal Tax Rate”) from 34% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The Company computed its income tax expense for the March 31, 2018 fiscal year using a blended Federal Tax Rate of 30.79%. The 21% Federal Tax Rate will apply to fiscal years ending March 31, 2019 and each year thereafter.

 

          On December 22, 2017, Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 ("SAB 118") was issued to address the application of US GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act. Upon enactment of the Tax Act, as a result of the rate reduction, the Company re-measured its net deferred tax assets and liabilities using the Federal Tax Rate that will apply when those amounts are expected to reverse, resulting in a write-down of $1.2 million. Because there is a full valuation allowance against these assets, the valuation allowance was reduced accordingly and there was no effect on the provision (benefit) for income taxes.  The Company has completed the accounting for the income tax effects of the Tax Act as of March 31, 2018 and has determined that the amount identified as provisional in the quarter ended December 31, 2018 was a materially correct amount. As a result, no measurement period adjustments have been recorded.

 

The following table reconciles the amount of income taxes computed at the federal blended rate of 30.79% for the year ended March 31, 2018 and 34% for the years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, to the amount reflected in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations for the years ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016:

 

   

2018

   

2017

   

2016

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Tax provision at federal statutory income tax rate

  $ (282

)

  $ 411